LON-CAPA User Help
Select a topic below.

Subcategories:
Course Management
Authoring
Using LON-CAPA FAQ
Pending Questions
Error Messages Explained
Software Developer Tips
[New Answer in "LON-CAPA User Help"]
LON-CAPA User Help :
Course Management
Subcategories:
Enrolling Users
Setting Problem Parameters
Communication
General
Statistics
Course Content
Calendar
Roles

LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management :
Enrolling Users
How to get kids into the course
Subcategories:
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
How to add a class list.
To modify the class list you must be the Course Coordinator for that class.

1. On the remote select the ENRL (course enroll) button.

2. In the main browser window you will see a text box directly below the subheading, Upload a courselist. Type the path to the file that contains the class list, or click Browse and locate the file on your machine.

3. Select the appropriate file type from the drop-down menu (usually CSV spreadsheet) and click, Upload Courselist. To see how to generate a CSV file, see.

4. The next screen allows you to associate the uploaded spreadsheet's columns with the necessary student fields, such as: Last Name, First Name, etc. Use the drop-down menus to make an association for each of the spreadsheets' columns.

Note: If you wish to associate a particular column to more than one field (if, for example, you wish to make the students' initial passwords the same as their student numbers) click the button labeled, Reverse Association. Then you can assign columns of the spreadsheet to more than one field.

5. From this page you can also set the login type and the start/end dates for the students.

6. Once you have the enrollment information set click, Update Courselist to complete the transaction.

williams@lon-capa.org, bowersj2@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
How do I add a student?
To modify the class list you must be the Course Coordinator for that class.

1. Logon to the network. If you have multiple roles, click ROLES on the remote and SELECT Course Coordinator for your particular class.

2. On the remote select the ENRL (course enroll) button.

3. In the main browser window click the button labeled, "Enroll Student".

4. Enter the relevant student information, login type, and set the start/end dates for the student.

5. Click "Enroll as Student" to complete the process.

LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
How do I drop students?
To modify the class list you must be the Course Coordinator for that class.

1. Logon to the network. If you have multiple roles, click ROLES on the remote and SELECT Course Coordinator for the particular class.

2. On the remote select ENRL (course enroll).

3. Near the bottom of the main browser window you will see a subheading called Drop Students. Click Selection List.

4. Next you will see the list of students your course has been assigned to. Click the boxes next to the names of the students you wish to drop.

5. Click Drop Students at the bottom of the page to complete the drop.

LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
To upload an Excel spreadsheet into LON-CAPA you must convert the Excel spreadsheet into a Comma Separated Value file, as follows:

1. Open the spreadsheet in Excel.

2. Choose File | Save As...

3. Select "CSV (Comma delimited)(*.csv)" from the "Save as type:" drop-down menu, remembering where you saved it.

4. Click "Save".

5. Click "Ok", or "Yes", at any windows that may appear, to create the *.csv file.

You can then upload the CSV file generated, as described in .

LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
How to set the Starting Date and Ending Date for a class.
Only Course Coordinators have the permissions to set the Starting Dates and Ending Dates for a class. They can allow a class to start before the beginning of the semester, or stay open after the end of the semester. Start and Ending dates for a class are set when the course coordinator adds a class list. How to add a class list. The Course Coordinator also has the permissions to change the class dates for an individual if necessary. How to modify student data.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
How to add TAs, instructors, guest, etc, to the course.
To enroll TAs, instructors, guest, ect, to the course the user would first follow
the same process as enrolling a student. How do I add a student?
You may also need to create the role you wish to assign the user. How to create Custom Roles.

After you have enrolled the person and created the new role if nessecary, do the
following:

1. Click CUSR on the remote control.
2. At the Create User, Change User Privileges sreen, Type the username
in the username text box or click the Select User link. The screen will then
display the current class list. Select a username to modify the user privileges.
4. Click User Roles.
5. At the Change User Privileges screen for the selected user, scroll down to Add Roles.
6. Click the box next to the roles you wish to activate for the selected user.
7. Set the starting dates and ending dates for each role you selected.
8. Click Modify User.
williams@lon-capa.org, bowersj2@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
How to view your Class List.
To view your class list, do the following:

1. Click ENRL on the remote control.
2. At the Enrollment Manager screen, select the View Class List link.
3. At the Current Class List screen, select the student status you wish to view
from the student status pulldown menu.

Note: You also have the choice to output the class list to CVS format or Excel
format. How to download a classlist to Excel.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
To download a class list to Excel, do the following:

1. Click ENRL on the remote control.
2. At the Enrollment Manager screen, select the View Class List link.
3. At the Current Class List screen, select the student status you want to download
from the Student Status pull down menu.
4. Select the Excel format link.

Excel will open with the class list.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Enrolling Users :
What is an expiration date for a role?
This is the date you can set for a role associated with the course to expire. When the ending date is reached, the role associated with the course will not be accessible to the user any more.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management :
Setting Problem Parameters
Subcategories:
[New Answer in "Setting Problem Parameters"]
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
Setting Parameters for an Assignment/Map
As Guy suggests in his post, you hit the PARM button and then poke around.

But to be more specific, take a deep breath and ... -

* Choose the Course Coordinator role for the course of interest.

* When you click on PARM, you will be greeted with a variety of options.

From the start you need to realize that flexibility has been the key in
design. You have a number of different parameters you can set (due date,
available points, client IP/name access control, ...). These can be
set for the whole course, a given map (a page or sequence), or a given
resource/problem. They can also be set for a full class, a single section,
or a single student. Get the picture? We're working on a simplified
presentation that hides some of these options.

Given this overview of possibilities, the boxes and menus at the top should
make more sense:

- You can select a specific section (fill in box with number).
- You can select a specific user by username or ID.
- You can decide how the monstrous list of parameters you're about to conjur
up should be sorted.
- You can select with which map you want to work (Assignments typically
consist of problems grouped in a common page or sequence, perhaps with
other content material interspersed).
- If you want to limit the parameters, you can choose the specific parameter.
(more on this in a second)

When you're ready, hit DISPLAY. The page will reload, once again displaying
your list of options at the top. This time a table will be appended to the
page showing all of the available parameters and all available options for
setting.

At this point we need to digress and discuss numerical IDs and their role
in problems. ID number are used to represent import files, script invocations,
responses, and subanswers within responses. The number generally represents
the order of these resources within a problem, but this is by no means
guaranteed. A multiple part problem may have parts 14 and 16. (You can set
different due dates for different parts of a problem if you so desire.)
Part 14 may have a single answer with the ID 15, and 16 may have two answers
with the IDs 17 and 18.

a due date is part-related, but a numerical tolerance is answer-related).
For example, the tolerance for part 16, subanswer 17 would be labeled
Numerical Tolerance 16_17.

You will set parameters by clicking on the link in the appropriate square
in the table. If you want to set the value for this parameter for the full
course, choose the column labeled 'Any User, In Course, General'. At this
point, all occurences of this parameter (for example, Numerical Tolerance 16_17)
will have this default value unless overridden. Note - this means all occurences
of Numerical Tolerance ***16_17***, not ALL numerical tolerances.

What parameter will take precedence? The priorities are shown lowest to highest
left to right in the table. The  last two columns will show the value in effect.
A specific setting for a student will take priority over a course-wide setting.

Parameters labelled part 0 provide the default for a given level.
Setting the Due Date for Part 0 of a problem in the 'For enclosing map'
column will set the default due date for all problems in that map.
You may have to make sure you have at least one 1-part problem in your
assignment to set the defaults! We're working on this.

What I will typically do is create an assignment, for example assignment4.page.
I will then set open, due and answer dates for part 0 of one of the problems.
I will also set the available points and maximum number of tries.
This will open my assignment.


lucasm@ohiou.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
Setting parameters (short version)
As course coordinator, select "parm" on the remote to set course
parameters.  You can display parameters for the entire course (top-level
map) or just select the enclosing map.  After the parameters display,
you can choose to set parameters, due dates for example, on three
levels:
1.)  Entire course - everything in the top-level sequence (click on the
bar "__" in any of the problems under "Course" heading.)
2.)  Enclosing map (click on the bar "__" in one of the problems in the
enclosing map under "Enclosing Map" heading.)
3.)  One particular resource (click on the bar "__" in the particular
problem you want to set parameters for under "Resource" heading.)

I may have the heading wrong because I wasn't looking at the parm window
while writing this, but you should be able to figure it out.

Note that the last heading says something like "parameter in effect".
Under this heading is the actual parameter being used.  Resource
parameters override enclosing map parameters which override course
parameters.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
What is the difference between 'parameter in effect' and 'Current Session Value' ?
"Parameter in Effect" is the concrete value for the specific parameter for the
users or group/section that you selected in the top menu. It does not
incorporate the cascading within the problem, where a parameter set for part 0
for example applies to part 1 item 12 if nothing else is said.

"Current Session Value" gives you the value for your username, and does
incorporate the complete cascading within a problem for your username.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
tolerance?
2% tolerance means that the student can be off by 2% and get the question correct. A tolerance of "2" means the student can be off by +/- 2.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
What are the different Parameter levels?
There are three different Parameter levels you can choose from when setting
Course Parameters: Course level, Map level, Resource level.

Course Level:
If you select Course level from the Parameter pull down menu a table will append
to the page showing the set defaults for all resources in the course. The
table has three columns: Parameter Name, Default Value, and Parameter in Effect.
The Parameter Name column lists all the different parameters that can be set for
the resources. Default Value is the Parameter setting for the users.
Parameter in Effect is the parameter setting for users.

Map Level:
If you select Map level from the Parameter pull down menu a table or tables will
append to the page showing the set defaults for all the resources in a map or
folder in the course. The map or folder displayd in the tables depends on which
map or folder you select from the enclosing map or folder pull down menu. The
table or tables have three columns: Parameter Name, Default Value, and Parameter
in Effect. The Parameter Name column lists all the different parameters that can
be set for the resources. Default Value is the Parameter setting for the
users. Parameter in Effect is the parameter setting for the users.

Resource Level:
If you selected Resource level from the parameter level pull down menu, a table
will append to the page showing all the available parameters for each resource.
If you selected a specific map or folder from the enclosing map or folder pull
down menu, then only the resources in the selected map or folder will be display
in the table. Here is a brief explanation for each column within the table:
Assessment URL and Title is the column the resource location and name are
listed. Type column reflects the type of resource. Enclosing Map or Folder column
gives the immediately enclosing map, which can be used for Map level parameter
setting. The Part column shows what part the parameter is for.
The Parameter Name column lists all the different parameters
that can be set for the resources. The Any User column is broken down in to
different smaller groups: Resource Level, in Course, and if applicable there is
a column for in Section/Group. Each one of these groups is broken down further.
The Resource Level is broken down into two columns: Default and for enclosing
map and folder. These two columns reflect the parameter setting the author set
when they created the resources. The in Course column is broken down into three
columns: General, Enclosing Map and Folder, and for Resource. These parameters
are the setting you assign for any user in the course. The Section/Group column
reflects the parameter settings you assign for a specific section/group of
users within the course. If you selected the Resource Level for a selected user,
The User ****at Domain **** column will also be included in the table. This
is broken down into three columns: General, Enclosing Map and Folder, and for
Resource. These reflect the parameters setting you assign for the selected user.
The next column is the Parameter in Effect. This column reflects the parameter
setting that is in effect. The last column reflects the value for your user name
and does incorporate complete cascading within a problem for your user name.

The parameters priorities are shown lowest to highest, left to right in the
tables. 
williams@lon-capa.org, bowersj2@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
How to set course parameters for a select user.
To set the course parameters for a selected User, do the following:

1. Click PARM on the remote control.
2. At the Set Course Parameter screen, type the username or id. If you do not
3. Select the Parameter level from the pull down menu. What are the different Parameter levels?
4. Select the enclosing map or folder from the pull down menu. If you choose
course level you will skip this step.
5. Click Set Course Assessment Parameters.

For Course Level and Map Level:
6. At the default value column, click "-" for the parameter you want to set for
the selected user. A new window will open.
7. Update the selected parameter.
8. Click Store.

The default value will now reflect the new parameter setting for the selected
user. Parameter in Effect will reflect the parameter settings for all other
users in the course. Repeat steps 6 through 8 as necessary.

For Resource Level:
9. Within the User ____ at Domain ____ column, click on the "-" for the
parameter setting you want to assign. A new window will open.
10. Update the selected parameter.
11. Click Store.

The Parameter in Effect column reflects the parameter setting that is in effect
for the selected user. The last column reflects the value for your user name
and does incorporate complete cascading within a problem for your user name.
Repeat steps 9 through 11 as necessary.

The parameters priorities are shown lowest to highest, left to right in the
tables.


LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
How to set the Maximum Number of Collaborators.
To set the Maximun Number of Collaborators for a specific problem, do the
following:

1. Select the role of Course coordinator.
2. Click NAV on the remote control.
3. Click on the essay problem you would like to set the maximun number of
collaborators.
4. Click PPRM on the remote control.
At the Set Course Parameter screen a table will append to the page with all the
parameters that can be set for the specific problem.
5. Scroll down to the Maximun Number of Collaborators.
6. In one of the Course Columns, click "-" in the general column for entire course,
click "-" in the for enclosing map or folder for a specific map or folder,
click "-" in the resource column for a particular resource. A new window will
open.
7. Update the selected parameter.
8. Click Store.


williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
How to extend due date for an individual student.
The easiest way is to use the Helper link at the top of the Parmeter screen.
For the long version, read on:

To extend the due date for an individual student, do the following:

1. Select the problem you want to extend the due date for.
2. Click PPRM on the remote control.
3. At the Set Course Parameters screen, type the user name of the person
you wish to extend the problem due date for.

Note: If you don't know the individuals user name, select the select user link.
A new window will open with a list of all the students in the class. Select the
student.

4. Click Update Section or Specific User.
5. The table that is displayed will have a heading labeled User_______ at domain________,
Under that heading will be a column labeled "For Resource", scroll down to the due date
cell and click on the link
6. A new window will open, enter new due date.
7. Select Store.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
What is a due date?
The due date is when the problems are due. The student will still not be able to view the problem again until the answer date.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
The answer date is when the problem and answers are viewable to the student. If the answer date is mistakenly set for a time before the due date, the answer date default to the due date.
williams@lon-capa.org, felicia@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Setting Problem Parameters :
Parameters for exams and quizzes
Go to PARM and change settings under:

* Show Problem Status (problemstatus)
A suggestion for online exams is to inhibit the problem status. The student won't know if a problem is correct or not if you select no. This way, you can give the student 99 tries, but their tries act more like an eraser. They don't actually get a response with feedback to try something else.
* Exam Type (problemstyle)
Ingore this parameter if it is viewable.
* Question Type (type)
Setting Question Type to exam will turn numerical answers into multiple choice.

To test out an exam, make sure that the open and due dates are appropriately set so students can't access your questions. Then, enroll yourself as a student and set appropriate open dates and due dates for yourself so you can test things out.
felicia@lon-capa.org

LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management :
Communication
How to send messages, etc
Subcategories:
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How do I disable course discussion?
By default, all users of a course can use the discussion features LON-CAPA
provides. Only Course Coordinators have the permission to disable course
discussion for a course. The Course Coordinators can disallow resource
discussion for specific roles or user.

1. At the User Role screen, select the role of Course Coordinator for the course.
2. Click PARM on the remote control.
3. At the Set Course Parameters screen, click Set Course Environment.
4. Scroll down to Disallow Resource Discussion for Roles or Disallow Discussion
for User.
5. To disallow Resource Discussion for Roles, enter a comma-separated list of
roles, for example: st, ts. This will disable course discussion for the
specified roles. To disallow Discussion for a User, enter username:domain. This
will disable course discussion for a specific user.
6. Check the set field if not checked.
7. Click Set Course Environment.

These changes take effect the next time the user enters the course.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How can I access my messages?
To view you messages, do the following:

1. Click COM on the remote control.
2. At the Communication and Message screen, Select View All Messages.
3. At the Display All Message screen, click open for the message you want to
access.

In addition, on the NAV page, you see a letter symbol next to any resource for
which you received unread feedback messages.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How do I specify who gets which Feedback (FDBK) messages?
To specify who gets which Feedback (FDBK) messages, do the following:

1. At the User Role screen, select the role of Course Coordinator for the course.
2. Click PARM on the remote control.
3. At the Set Course Parameters screen, click Set Course Environment.
4. Scroll down to each Feedback type and enter a comma seperated list of
"username:domain", for example, "fred:msu,susie:ohiou". This will specify who
gets which feedback messages.
5. Check the set field if not checked.
6. Click Set Course Environment.

These changes take effect the next time the user enters the course.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
What is a Critical Message?
A Critical Message is a message that will appear immediately after the recipient user logs in. The user has to acknowledge receipt; it is not possible to use the rest of LON-CAPA until they do so. When sending a Critical Message, the sender can send the critical message with a return receipt, which will send the message as a critical message, but additionally return a message to the sender each time a user acknowledges receipt of the message.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How to use the CHAT feature.
To use the CHAT feature do the following:

1. Click CHAT on the remote control.
2. Type the message in the new window's text box.
3. Click Post Anonymous or Post.
Note: If the user chooses to post anonymously only the course faculty will see
their name.

Certain smilies and frownies are supported along with LATEX.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How to create a Screen Name or Nickname for a user.
To create a Screen Name or Nickname, do the following:

1. Click PREF on the remote control.
2. At the Change Your Preferences screen, click Change nickname and anonymous
discussion screen name.
3. Type new Screen Name (shown when post anonymously).
4. Type new Nickname (shown when post non-anonymously).
5. Click Change.

Note: When using post anonymously the user name is only visble to course faculty.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How a user can leave Feedback for specific page
To submit feedback for a specific page, do the following:

1. Open the resourse page you want to submit feedback for.
2. Click FDBK on remote control.
3. At the Resource and Feedback Discussion screen, check at least one of the
listed feedback types.
4. Type feedback comment or question in text box.
6. Click Send.
williams@lon-capa.org, bowersj2@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How to save records of face-to-face discussions?
To save records of face-to-face discussions, do the following:

1. Click COM on the remote control.
2. At the Communication and Message screen, click the User notes, record of
face-to-face discussions, and critical messages link.
3. Type the Username in the Username field and choose the domain using the

Note: You can also click the Select User link and a new window
will open with a list of all the users in the course. Select the user. This
will populate the Username field and close the window.

5. Click Retrieve discussion and message records. The screen will show any
records previously entered for the user.
6. Enter text in the text box.
7. Click Post this record.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
To change message forwarding and notification address, do the following:

1. Click PREF on the remote control.
2. At the Change Your Preferences screen, click Change message forwarding and
6. Click Change.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How to create a Bulletin board.
A Bulletin Board allows you to add a dedicated bulletin board page to a course.
By default in LON-CAPA, all pages can host discussion, but you may wish to
centeralize the discussion, or provide a place for general course-related
discussion. To create a bulletin board, do the following:

2. Click DOCS on the remote control.
3. At the Course Document screen, click the Bulletin Board button in the
Special document Column.
4. At the window pop up type the name of the bulletin board and click OK

The page will be added to the end of the current course document folder.

the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first.
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How to send a Broadcast Message to the course.
To send a Broadcast Message to the course, do the following:

1. Click COM in the remote control.
2. At the Communication and Message screen, select Broadcast Message to Course.
3. Type your message in the text box.
5. If this is a critical message check to send as a critical message.
6. Select the students you want the message sent to.
7. Click Send Mail.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Communication :
How to send email messages.
To send an email messages, do the following:

1. Click COM on the remote control.
2. At the Communication and Message screen, select Send Message to User(s).
3. Type the username you want to send email to.

Note: If you don't know the user name you can click on the Select User link.
Another screen will open and you can select a user from the list.

5. Type the Subject in the subject text box.
6. Type the message in the text box.
7. If this is a critical message, select send as critical message or send as a
critical message and return receipt.
8. Click Send New Mail.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management :
Subcategories:
LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading :
Subcategories:
What are the three levels of the spreadsheet?
The top-level is the "course level" sheet, which is not accessible to students. It lists the export rows of all "student level" sheets (the sheet that students get to see when they press "GRDS"). These in turn import the export rows of all assessment level sheets.

The figure below shows the spreadsheet hierarchy.

How do I change the spreadsheet sheet that the students get to see?
Use "Save As ..." on the level sheet that you want to change, and check the box "make default". If you only want to change the sheet for specific assessments, save the assessment level sheet and do not make it default. Instead, on the student level sheet, use the pulldown menu next to the particular assessment.
If I want alternative spreadsheet view of the same data, what do I do?
Simply save the sheet without making it default. Then use "load" if you want to use the sheet again.
Why are the rows in my spreadsheet out of order?
Once a sheet is saved, there is a one-to-one relationship between a certain row and a specific student in the course-level sheet, and a specific assessment in the student level sheet. Thus, specific cell names like "A5" can be used in calculations. Changing class enrollment or course content, respectively, after saving a sheet will bring the row numbers "out of order."
What is "Completely Recalc" in the spreadsheet good for?
The total number of sheets in course can be tremendous, basically the number of students times the number of assessments. LON-CAPA caches these sheets and only selectively devalidates those cache copies if potentially relevant data changes. "Completely Recalc" forces LON-CAPA to devalidate all cache copies. This is necessary to get the most up-to-date calculations if the sheet itself contains direct access to the system clock (thus, would be "out-of-date" the moment it is calculated), or if an assessment is edited in a way that would retroactively change grading (the spreadsheet devalidation catches student submissions, PARaMeter changes, and spreadsheet changes, but not publication).
What is the export row?
The export row of for example an assessment level spreadsheet is what shows up in the student level sheet. The export of the student level sheet shows up in the course level sheet.
Only the capital letter columns will export up. The small letter columns are for additional calculations for the current level of spreadsheet only.
How can I avoid showing "empty rows" in the spreadsheet?
You can check the "Hide" box on the spreadsheet itself or you can change the default functionality in the "Course Environment" under PARM.
The template row is a way to use the same formula in every row of a sheet. The actual row number is replaced by a '#'. For example, "A#*b#" would be "A5*b5" in row 5.
What are symbolic names in the spreadsheet?
In the assessment level spreadsheet, most imported values also have symbolic name attached to them, for example parameter_0_weight. You can refer to the imported value by adding square brackets around its name, for example [parameter_0_weight]*A5.
How do I import values that are not automatically imported to a spreadsheet?
The spreadsheet determines which data it imports from the metadata of the resource. Additional imported values can be used in formulas through the same &EXT (external) function that is also available in assessments. For example, &EXT("system.time") imports the system time. Please note that in this particular example, the time explicit time dependence is still not recognized by the caching mechanism (see also "What is "Completely Recalc" in the spreadsheet good for?")
How do I specify cells in the spreadsheet?
Cells are specified by the letter-number combination of their position in the table, for example "A5". Note that the columns are labelled "A-Z" and then to the right of that again "a-z" (lowercase).
There are also wildcards '*' and '#' which are used in ranges and templates, respectively, and symbolic names.
How do I specify ranges in the spreadsheet?
Many functions accept ranges. Valid ranges are for example "A5..C7" which is the square between cells A5 to C7, as in A5, A6, A7, B5, etc. Also, wildcards can be used, as in "A*" for column A, or "*5" for row 5.
 *       - all rows, all columns
B*      - all rows in column B
*5      - all columns in row 5
C5..F25 - all cells in the rectangle between C5 and F25

For example, &SUM("d*") will add up all cells in column d.

What functions does the spreadsheet have?
&NUM(range) - number of non-empty cells in range
&BIN(low, high, range) - number of non-empty cells in range with values between low and high
&SUM(range) - sum of the non-empty cells in range
&MEAN(range) - mean value of non-empty cells in range
&STDDEV(range) - standard deviation of non-empty cells in range
&PROD(range) - product of non-empty cells in range
&MAX(range) - maximum value of non-empty cell in range
&MIN(range) - minimum value of non-empty cells in range
&SUMMAX(n ,range) - sum of the maximum n non-empty cells in range
&SUMMIN(n, range) - sum of the minimum n non-empty cells in range
In addition, non-IO Perl functions work in cells, which is internally evaluated within a safe space. Field names and Column-Row combinations can be used as variables.
Why does it take over 2 minutes to recalc a spreadsheet for a class of less than 30 students?
The spreadsheet has its own script (a "macro").

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During the spreadsheet calculation, there are two passes:
1.)  looks for symbolic refs to cells and translates to cell numbers
such as A16, B2, etc.
paramerter_VAR_weight ---> B2
a.) also looks for stuff in brackets, i.e.:
[&EXPANDSUM(VariableName; symbolic_ref)]
[timestamp] ---> A16
2.)  calculates cells

Raw points in cell V0:

[&EXPANDSUM(PART;parameter_PART_weight*stores_PART_awarded)]

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Making new formula for problems:

Step1:
- go to problem level spreadsheet
- make a raw points cell (weight in most cases), ie V0
- assume tries in C0, for example

example: is one point on 1st try, .75 points on second try, .5 on
third try and all other tries.

- make cell, X0 such with formula: C0>2?0.5*V0:(C0>1?0.75*V0:V0)
- TEST_EXPR?IF_TRUE_EXPR:IF_FALSE_EXPR (from Perl book)

Step2:  Make formula work for all problems.
- Click "make default" box then click "Save as"

Step2b: To make formula work for just one problem (or set of problems)
- Change name from "course_default" to new name, i.e. "fred" and
click "Save as"
- go up to student spreadsheet which will now show "fred" as and
alternative to "default".
- Select "fred" on drop-down box for every problem you
want to use "fred" for.
- Apply this to all students:
- check box, save as "course_default"

Step 3:
- on top-level course spreadsheet, you should have name of the default

* Only changes in Capital letter columns will import up.
* To save spreadsheet as .csv file, click "[]Output to CSV" and then save file.

Summary to carry changes up:

problem:
1.) Make default [x]
2.) Click [Save as]
3.) Go up level to student
student:
1.) [Completely recalculate]
2.) Go up level to course
course:
1.) [Completely recalculate]
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In order for your students to see their spreadsheet, you need to go to
The default grades screen will change to indicate problems "done" instead of
points received.  The student will also get a link to their "detailed score sheet"
which is actually their personal spreadsheet.
How does the spreadsheet handle tries with multi-part questions?
"tries" is now the average number of tries to get the parts right.

The data for each part is still stored by the system. To expand the data and work with all parts, please see the answer for "How can I do an operation over all "parts" of an assessment? ".
I changed my grading scheme in the spreadsheet, what will my students see?
The problem will simply say "correct" but the student can view their
own spreadsheet and will see their points based on the spreadsheet calculations.

Students have a button that say GRDS instead of spreadsheet button.  It will
show them their spreadsheet.
> > > * Can the students see how many points a problem is worth on the problem
> > > itself, or is it just on the spreadsheet.
> >
> > Only on the spreadsheet.

How can I do an operation over all "parts" of an assessment?
Often, there are several parts in a specific assessment, for example parts 0, 11, 12, and 13 for an assessment with three parts. For a general spreadsheet, it is not often desired to for example sum up all of these parts, while not knowing how many parts there are as the spreadsheet is written.

The spreadsheet has a preprocessor which an expand a symbolic expression over all symbolic names that fit. The general syntax is [&EXPANDSUM(VARNAME;expression)]. For example, for the above assessment with three parts,

[&EXPANDSUM(PART;parameter_PART_weight*stores_PART_awarded)]

would become parameter_0_weight*stores_0_awarded+parameter_11_weight*stores_11_awarded+parameter_12_weight*stores_12_awarded+parameter_13_weight*stores_13_awarded.

How do I get rid of the "Maximum Calculation Depth Exceeded Error"?
This error can occur when you reference other cells in calculations. For example, you have:

G0 = Some_complicated_expression
X0 = G0>2?1:0

Replace X0 with [ (Some_complicated_expression) > 2]?1:0 and that might fix your error.

Why are there so many strangely placed ?'s and :'s in the spreadsheet code I look at?
The ?'s and :'s seen in the spreadsheet cells are part of compact notation for an if-then-else clause. Something like:
( B2 > 16 ? 'passing grade' : 'failing grade') can be translated into:
  if (B2 > 16 ) {
$temp = 'passing grade'; } else {$temp = 'failing grade';
}
$temp; The nicest part of the ( ? : ) operator (aside from its compactness) is the way it automatically returns the value you want without having to use any temporary variables. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : Spreadsheet : I put a list of numbers in a cell and the spreadsheet only shows the last one. When you have a list of numbers in a cell, how it is displayed depends on how you seperate the numbers and how Perl interprets the results. "35 45 12" (without the quotes) will not generate any result because this is an invalid perl statement. "35,45,12" (without the quotes) will have a result of 12 because Perl has a comma operator similar to the comma operator in C. The comma operator is binary and returns the value on its right. Thus$variable = 15, 26; assigns $variable the value 26. If you need the values to all be displayed, enclose the entire cell contents in quotes. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : Spreadsheet : How can I take the sum of a column? use the SUM function. To take the sum of column 'M' use  SUM("M*") [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : Spreadsheet : Using the template, how can I do row-specific operations? Using the template you can set up row operations but you need a way to refer to 'this same row'. Use a "#" instead of the row number. For example, entering A# in template column B will result in column B having the same contents as column A. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : Spreadsheet : How can I access a course parameter in the spreadsheet? If you set a course parameter (via the [PARM] button on the remote), you can access this parameter in the spreadsheet. To access the parameter 'testparm' use &EXT('course.testparm') in a cell of your spreadsheet. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : Spreadsheet : Is there some function that one can use in a cell to specify the SUM of all "problem-weight" or "points-earned" parameters that belong to a particular .sequence, without having to identify all of the individual cell descriptors? Unfortunately, this is not available at this time. There are requests in bugzilla about this feature. You can query the bugs.lon-capa.org page and add yourself in the CC list to be updated on the progress. felicia@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : Spreadsheet : How to give half credit for tries greater than 1 over each problem part if ("[stores_0_solved]" eq 'excused') {  0  } else {  [&EXPANDSUM(PART;parameter_PART_weight*stores_PART_awarded*(stores_PART_tries lt 2?1:0.5))] } felicia@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : How do I get an overview of the homework performance in my course? After selecting your coordinator or instructor role in the course, use CHRT to see a chart of homework problems in the columns and students in the rows. The numbers indicate how many attempts it took that student to get the homework correct. The green numbers indicate the number of problems a student solved per sequence, the blue number the total number of problems solved out of the total number of problems for the complete course. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : How can I see the work a student did on a specific problem? Navigate to the problem and click PGRD on the Inline Menu or Remote Control. For problems that are on a composite page (.page file), navigate to the page first. Then click the SUBM or PGRD button for the problem you want to view submissions for. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : How can I see the correct solution for a particular student? NAVigate to the problem in question and hit "SUBM" (see: How can I see the work a student did on a specific problem? ) [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : How can I override the grading of a problem for a particular student? NAVigate to the problem as the course coordinator (or instructor) and use the PGRD (Problem Grade) button on the remote. The PGRD button will be above the problem for problems in pages. Select the student that you want grade from there. How to manually grade problems. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : weight? points? status? Problem weight is set in PARM. You should think of this as the relative weight a problem has to other problems. If you use the default spreadsheet, the "points" per problem will equal the weight that you set in PARM. However, the spreadsheet can calculate "points" using any kind of algorithm, using the problem "weight" a parameter. "Weight" is not "Points" is not "Status" - we need to make sure to not mix and confuse these. The spreadsheet and only the spreadsheet is what determines points. Points can easily depend on  * status (solved, not solved, excused, ...) * weight (0, 1, 2, 3, ...) * partial credit (0.75, ...) * tries (bonus for few tries, etc) or bonus dates, or covered units, or ... - instructors come up with all kinds of ways to give "points." Only the spreadsheet has all of that information and can calculate with it. We need to make sure to stay neutral and don't call things "points" which in many courses are far from the whole equation. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : Is there a way to get the information from the chart into an excel spreadsheet? The chart can be output in five formats: • html with links - each entry for a problem (whether tries or points) will have a link to the students answer if they have tried it. • html with all links - each entry for a problem will be a link to the students view, even if they have not attempted it. • html without links - there are no links in the chart to student views of problems. For those users whose browsers cannot deal with large (20-30 meg) html files with 100000 links, this is much smaller. • Excel - output an Excel 97 compatable version of the chart. If you choose options which lead to more than 255 columns in the spreadsheet you will be asked to reduce the number of sequences to include in the output. • CSV - comma seperated value files are available and do not have the column restriction that Excel has. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : How to create a score upload form. A Score Upload Form is a page in LON-CAPA that stands in for a score in an assignment external to LON-CAPA. You can insert a Score Upload Form into your course, and use it to enter student's scores for an exam, project, or any other assignment. The easiest way to do this is via the PGRDs score upload screen, which allows you to upload a CSV file containing student's scores. To create a Score Upload Form, do the following: 1. Log in to the course you wish to add a Score Upload Form to. 2. Click DOCS on the remote control. 3. At the Course Document screen, click the Score Upload Form button in the Special Document Column. 4. At the window pop up type the name of the Score Upload Form and click OK The page will be added to the end of the current course document folder. Note: Your new page will be active the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. williams@lon-capa.org, bowersj2@msu.edu [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : How to manually grade problems. To manually grade a problem, do the following: 1. Log in to the course. 2. Navigate to the problem you want to grade. 3. Click PGRD on the remote control. 4. At the grading menu, select the section and student status from the pull down menus. 5. Select one of the following: Current Resource: For one or more student, Current Resource: For all students in selected section or course, or The complete Set/Page/Sequence: For one student. Note: If you choose Current Resource: For one or more students you will also need to select if you want to view only students with submission or all students. 6. Click View/Grade/Regrade. For Current Resource: For one or more student Continue here. 7. At the View/Grade/Regrade Submission for a student or a group of students screen, select the level you want to view the problem text. Note: If you select No, then only the answers will be displayed. If you select one student, then the question will be displayed with the first student. If you select all students, then the question will be display for each student. 8. Select the level of submission detail you want to view. 9. Select the student(s) to View/Grade/Regrade. 10. Click View/Grade/Regrade 11. At the submission record screen, review the answers and select the points you wish to assign the student(s). You also have the option to excuse the student(s) from the problem by using the problem weight pull down menu. Note: The computer has automatically graded all the Problems with a red check mark. You have the authority to change the score of any problem the computer graded. 12. After you have finished viewing or manually grading the problem answers, using the pull down menu select the number of new students answers you want to view. 13. Click Save & Next. Note: Clicking Next or Previous will not save any changes you've made, but will display the next or previous students answer. For Current Resource: For all Students in selected section or course continue here. 14. At the manual Grading screen, choose to assign a common grade to the class or Assign grade to specific students in the class. 15. If your assigning a common grade to the class, select the point value you wish to assign in the box under the Assign Common Grade to Class heading or If assigning to each student input the point value you want to assign to each student. 16. Click Submit changes. The Current Grade Status Screen will display. For The Complete Set/Page/Sequence: For one student continue here. 17. At the Manual grading by page or sequence screen, using the pull down menu select the folder with problems you wish to grade. (By default the folder listed is the folder the current problem resides in.) 18. Select Yes or No to view problem text. 19. Select Submission detail level you wish to view. 20. Select the student. 21. Click Submit The screen will display the problems and answers. 22. Scroll down and View/grade/regrade the problems. 23. Click Save. The screen will display the scores for the problems in the folder. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Grading : How do I reset the status of a problem such that all previous data is ignored? As Course Coordinator or as Instructor: 1) Click on Navigate to view the outline of your course. 2) Navigate to the .page or to the .problem and click on the file name to open the quiz or the problem. 3) Click on the "PGRD" button by one of the quiz questions. 4) Select "The complete set/page/sequence: For one student" and then click NEXT". 5) Select the student who took the quiz you wish to reset and then click NEXT". 6) In the drop-down menu for each question (at the bottom of the cell for the problem), select "RESET STATUS". 7) The first time you do this you will get a warning message "This problem has been graded by the computer. Do you want to change the score?" Click "OK". 8) Continue setting each problem's status to "RESET STATUS". You should not get any more warning messages. 9) Click "SAVE". Once you click "SAVE" this attempt by the student will be removed.  golson@eicc.edu, felicia@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General Miscellaneous Subcategories: [New Answer in "General"] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How do I delete a course? A course can not be "deleted" from the LON-CAPA server. Courses occupy very little storage space and are not a burden on the system. On the other hand, allowing data to be permanently deleted could lead to serious accidental data loss. You can expire the roles for each user in the course. For example, when you click ENRL How do I add a student? How to modify student data. or CUSR (missing or broken file) on the remote control to add students, instructors, course coordinators into a course, you can set the ending date. When the ending date is reached, the role associated with the course will not be accessible to the user anymore. If you go to the roles screen by clicking ROLES on the remote control, you will notice that there is a check box at the top where you can show all roles. If you check that box and then click display, you will see your current roles and your expired roles (if there are any). [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : Creating a course - detailed version If you are a domain coordinator, just click CCRS on the Main Menu or Remote Control. Fill out the form. If you are an instructor, you will need to contact your domain coordinator. Some domains, for example the msu domain, have automatic course creation. If you are an MSU instructor, visit http://www.lon-capa.msu.edu and click the link to request a course. If you are a domain coordinator at another domain and would like to build a similar form, visit http://help.lon-capa.org and click the link to request help. Send a message about automatic course creation at your institution. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : What info do you give your students at MSU? The email below is from Gerd Kortemeyer and it is used for an online course in the fall of 2001. Eventually, some of the instructions in this email may change because of interface improvements. The intention of this email is give you a general idea to introducing your students to LON-CAPA. > > Is there a document floating around that has student instructions for > LON-CAPA, particularly regarding accrued knowledge of what > hardware/software requirements exist (javascript and cookies enabled, > etc...) > This is what I have sent my students (classes started on Monday) - so far no problems with browser settings: Welcome to phy232c - Virtual University ACCESS The class material can be accessed at http://loncapa1.vu.msu.edu/ You will log in with your pilot ID and password. The domain is "msuvu", which is already filled in for you. Access will be opened after 5pm today, Monday the 27th. After successful login, you will get to a screen with your currently available courses. Please select your course. You can move forward and backward in the content with the respective buttons in the Remote Control (the small extra window that comes up). A good arrangement of the windows will be to have both the Remote Control and the content window available next to each other. You can press the NAV ("Navigate Content") button to quickly move to a page in the course. LATE ADDITIONS If you added late into this course, it can take up to 48 hours between your online enrollment and access to this course. PLATFORM We will be using a new platform, LON-CAPA, which is a combination of LectureOnline and CAPA, which some of you might already know. The software is officially piloted this semester. BROWSERS On PCs, Netscape 3, Netscape 4, Internet Explorer 4 and Internet Explorer 5 should work. On Macs, Netscape 3 and Netscape 4 should work. Problems have been reported about Internet Explorer on this platform. On Linux, Netscape 3 and Netscape 4 should work. (I believe Mozilla and Netscape 6 work as well) MATERIAL The majority of the material for the semester is already online, however, content (including homework) will be added and modified during the semester. HOMEWORK There is weekly homework, which is due online. The deadline is Thursdays at 4:30pm You have several tries to solve a homework problem, with no penalty. The computer stores all attempts. Important: as you solve a problem, the computer will give you a receipt number. Please write down this number in your records, it is your proof that you have solved the homework. If you have complaints about uncredited homework, it will only be accepted if you are able to present these numbers. COMMUNICATION LON-CAPA has built-in communication support. You can send messages regarding the course content using the FDBK ("Feedback") button in the Remote Control. You can choose different categories of feedback, including a contribution to the course discussion. Normal feedback gets routed to the TAs and course faculty. Course discussions are page-specific bulletin boards and come up right under the page that you are viewing. You can choose to post anonymously, in which case only the course faculty can see your name. To send internal email, or look at replies to your feedback, use the COM ("Communication") button. Since this is a "virtual" class, frequent and effective communication is crucial. This class is not meant to be taken in isolation. Please use the built-in communication rather than normal email, since it automatically provides context for your questions and concerns.  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How do I edit the content of my course? If you created the course by selecting a sequence that is authored by another user that you do not have co-authorship with, you cannot change the content of the course. If you created the sequence in your own construction space (or someone's space that you have access to as a co-author), you can select the author role and then click on CSTR on the remote control and change things. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How a user evaluates a course. To submit an evaluation for a course do the following: 1. Click EVAL on the remote control. 2. At the Evaluate Resource screen, answer the questions using the pull down menus. 3. Add comments if necessary in the comment field. 4. Click Submit Evaluation. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to modify a students starting and/or ending dates Only Course Coordinators have the permissions to modify a students starting and ending dates. This is accomplished by modifying student data. How to modify student data. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to modify student data. To modify student data the user must be the Course Coordinator for the course. 1. At the User Roles screen, select the role Course Coordinator. 2. Clink ENRL on the remote control. 3. At the Enrollment Manager screen, click the Modify Student Data link. The screen will then display the current class list. (The user may also use the pull down menu to display previously enrolled or any enrollment status for the class.) 4. Select a username to modify the student's information. The screen will display the student name and data. 5. Modify the student data. 6. Click Submit Modification. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to modify a user's privileges. To modify a user's privileges, do the following: 1. Click CUSR on the remote control. 2. At the Create User, Change User Privileges screen under the heading Set Individual User Roles, type the username in the textbox. Note: If you don't know the username, click the Select User link and a window will open with a list of all the users in the course. Select a User. 3. Click the User Role Button. Note: At the Change User Privileges screen the user's existing roles and available roles are listed. 4. Click the box next to the roles you wish to revoke or add to the user. If your adding roles input the group/section if applicable and the starting/ending dates for the roll. 5. Click Modify user. williams@lon-capa.org, bowersj2@msu.edu [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to change your password. To change your password, do the following: 1. Click PREF on the remote control. 2. At the Change your Preferences screen, click change password button. 3. Type your current password in current password text box. 4. Type your new password in new password text box. 5. Re-type your new password in the confirm password box. 6. Click Change Password button. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to change the color scheme in LON-CAPA. To change your color scheme preferences, do the following: 1. Click PREF on the remote control. 2. At the Change your Preferences screen, click Change Color Scheme. 3. At the Change Color Scheme for Current Role type, click on select link next to the description you want to change. 4. At the pop up window, click on the color and select store. 5. Repeat step 3 & 4 as necessary. 6. Click Change Custom Color button to save changes. To restore the color to the default colors, click Reset All Colors to Default. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : What is the Remote Control? The Remote Control is the small extra window that comes up when you login to LON-CAPA. The Remote control is a tool that allows you to switch between functions and roles within LON-CAPA. When you move your mouse over the buttons in the remote, the sixteen gray boxes will show you a reminder of what that button does. LON-CAPA can be controlled by either the remote control or menus. If you choose to use the menus in the content window you need to close the remote control. Close the remote control by clicking ‘x’ in the upper right-hand corner. The system automatically launches the menus in the content window. To launch the remote control again, select the link Launch Remote Control and the remote control window will appear again. Note: If your browser is not configured properly you will not be able to use the remote control. You must have pop-ups, JavaScript, and cookies enabled for the remote control to work. If your browser is not configured properly for the remote control, then LON-CAPA will automatically use the menu mode. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to print a resource. How to print a resource, do the following: 1. Select a resource. 2. Click PRT on the remote control. The Print helper will guide you through the process of preparing a PDF document with options such as printing all the problems from a particular folder/sequence. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to create notes. To create notes about a resource, do the following 1. Select the resource. 2. Click ANOT on the remote control. 3. Type your notes When you return to the resouce at a later time and click ANOT on the remote control, you will see your previous notes. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to save bookmarks. To save bookmarks within LON-CAPA, click SBKM on the remote control when your viewing the page you want to bookmark. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How to view previously bookmarked pages. To view what pages you have created bookmarks for or to view a page you previously have bookmarked, click VBKM on the remote control. A window will open containing links to the bookmarks you have saved. Select a link to view the page. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : How do students turn in an essay problem that mulitply students collaborated. When a group of students is ready to submit an essay answer, there is a text box on the answer submission page that asks for the user names of all the collaborators for the problem. NOTE: Only one student needs to submit the answer, but they need to make sure to list all the usernames that collaborated with the problem. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : What is the difference between expiration date and due date? Expiration date is when the students Role expires. That is why they won't see the course listed on their course screen by default anymore. Due date is when a problem is due. All the problems could be past due but if the students role has not reached the expiration date, the student could still enter the course and view the resources. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : General : Menu mode equivalents to the Remote Control buttons The following is a list of the remote control buttons with menu mode equivalents: Remote Menu Mode ROLES Choose Role DOCS Edit CRS docs < Backward > Forward SPRS Course Grades CHRT Course Chart STAT Course Stats ENRL Course Enroll CUSR User Roles PARM Course Parms CSTR Construct RES Resource Space CAT Catalog Info SUBM View Submissions PGRD Problem Grades PPRM Problem Parms EVAL Evaluate This FDBK Feedback discuss PRT Prepare Printout SBKM VBKM View Bookmark ANOT CLDR Calendar Announce COM Communication CHAT Course Chat SRCH Search Library PREF Preference EXIT EXIT williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Statistics Using LON-CAPA statistics, "STAT". Subcategories: Answers in this category: Where do the problem titles in the stat pages come from? New Item [New Answer in "Statistics"] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Statistics : Where do the problem titles in the stat pages come from? The title comes from the map, not the problem title in meta data. Often times, this is the same title though. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Statistics : New Item Is there a way to get Lon-Capa to export all of the student responses for a particular question? I'd like to do some quantitative statistical analysis and would like to be able to get this information out of Lon Capa. john.buncher@ndsu.edu [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content How to add resources to a course. williams@lon-capa.org Subcategories: [New Answer in "Course Content"] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : What are Main Course Document? Main Course Documents are the “top-level” documents of your course. They are the documents the user will use the navigation controls to move through, and makeup the course itself. When a user enters the course they will be taken to the first resource listed in the main course documents, and as they proceed forward through the course, they will proceed towards the last resource. Main Course documents also show up on the Navigate Course Content screen. Manipulating main course documents and supplemental course documents is essentially identical, except that main course documents has some options that is not available in the supplemental documents.What are Supplemental Course Documents? Changes made to the main course documents, such as adding new resources, changing the order, renaming or removing resources will be visible the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. Main Course Documents was added to LON-CAPA in 2003, so courses pre-dated 2003, or deliberately created in the old style by the Domain Coordinator will not have Main Course Documents. Note: Main Course Documents and Supplemental Course Documents do not carry over from one course to another. If you would like to create documents that can be used in multiple courses, please ask you LON-CAPA Domain Coordinator about becoming an Author. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : What are Supplemental Course Documents? Supplemental Course Documents are auxiliary file the course coordinator wants the student to have access to that are not necessarily part of the course, such as reference material, handouts, ect. This is also useful for files that may not be directly viewable or usable in a browser, such as PowerPoint pesentations and word documents. Supplemental documents differ in how the material is presented to the student. The student will not see the supplemental documents unless they click DOCS on the remote control. Manipulating supplemental course documents is essentially identical to main course documents, except that main course documents has some options that is not available in the supplemental documents. Specifically, you cannot add a Navigate Content page, a Simple page, Score Upload Form, or Bulletin Board since those should be in the course sequence. How to add Course Content to a course. Changes made to supplemental course documents, such as adding new resources, changing the order, renaming or removing resources will be visible the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. Note: Main Course Documents and Supplemental Course Documents do not carry over from one course to another. If you would like to create documents that can be used in multiple courses, please ask you LON-CAPA Domain Coordinator about becoming an Author. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to add Course Content to a course. To add Course content, log in to the course you want to add content to. On the remote control, click DOCS to display the Course Document screen. At the Course Document screen, you will see you can add documents as Main Course Documents What are Main Course Document? or Supplemental Course Documents. What are Supplemental Course Documents? There are four ways you can add a new document to the course: -Upload a document from your hard drive How to upload a document from your hard drive? -Import a document from the LON-CAPA network How to import a LON-CAPA resource. -Add an external resource How to add external resources. -Create a document from a prepared template How to add documents using a template. You can also organize documents into folders for structure, How to organize your course using folders. add a Navigate content page, which creates a resource in the course that displays the Navigation Course Content screen.What is the Navigate Course Content screen? This could make a good first page. The resources are listed in the order they will be viewed. The first resource listed is the starting page a user will see when they access the course. To change the order of the resources, click on the blue up or down arrows next to resource you wish to move. Repeat this until you have all the resources in the order you want. You can also remove or rename a resource by clicking on the blue word next to the resource. Changes made to the course documents, such as changing the order, adding new resources, renaming or removing resources will be visible the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to add documents using a template. There are several templates available to fill out and add to a course. To add a template to your course, do the following: 1. Log in to the course you want to add a template to. 2. Click DOCS on the remote control. 3. At the Course Document screen, click on the button for the template page you wish to add: Syllabus How to create the syllabus using the syllabus template., Simple PageHow to create a simple page., Simple ProblemHow to create a simple problem., Score Upload FormHow to create a score upload form., Bulletin BoardHow to create a Bulletin board., or My Personal Info.How to create a Personal Information resourse using the personal info template. 4. At the pop up window type a title for the template page your adding and click OK. The Syllabus page and My Personal Info will not ask for a title. The page will be added to the end of the current course document folder. Note: Your new templates will be active the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to create the syllabus using the syllabus template. The Syllabus template adds a traditional syllabus page, which can be filled out with various standard information. To create a syllabus using the syllabus template do the following: 1. Click DOCS on the remote control. 2. At the Course Document screen, click Syllabus listed in the Special documents column. 3. Click re-initialize course to make changes active for the current session. Note: The file will appear in the main course document list, where the user can move, rename, or remove it. If the user does not click re-initialize course the changes will become active the next time the user logs in. 4. Click Syllabus link listed in main course documents. 5. At the syllabus screen fill out the various syllabus information. 6. Click Store. Note: To see the student view, click show student view link.  williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to add a Syllabus that already exist. If your syllabus is already anywhere on the web (in or outside of LON-CAPA), you can specify the URL for inclusion in the bottom field of the syllabus template. How to create the syllabus using the syllabus template. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to create a Personal Information resourse using the personal info template. To create a My Personal Info using the template, do the following: 1. Click DOCS on the remote control. 2. At the Course Document screen, click My personal Info listed in the Special documents column. 3. Click re-initialize course to make changes active for the current session. Note: The file will appear in the main course document list, where the user can move, rename, or remove it. If the user does not click re-initialize course the changes will become active the next time the user logs in. 4. Click the link listed in main course documents. 5. At the Personal Information screen, fill out the various information. 6. Click Store. Note: The My Personal Info page is a special page that belongs to you, not the course. Everywhere you insert that page it will have the same contents, and all changes made to one will propogate to all others.  williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to create a simple page. Simple Page allows you to add simple web pages to the course, with an area for text, and an area to add web references. To create a simple page, do the following: 1. Log in to the course you wish to add a simple Page to. 2. Click DOCS on the remote control. 3. At the Course Document screen, click the Simple Page button in the Special Document Column. 4. At the window pop up type the name of the simple page and click OK The page will be added to the end of the current course document folder. Note: Your new page will be active the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. 4. Click the title of the simple page you created listed in main course documents. 5. At the Simple Page screen fill out the various Simple page information. 6. Click Store. Note: To see the student view, click show student view link.  williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to create a simple problem. Simple Problem allows you to add simple problems to the course. To create a simple problem, do the following: 1. Log in to the course you wish to add a simple problem to. 2. Click DOCS on the remote control. 3. At the Course Document screen, click the Simple Problem button in the Special Document Column. 4. At the window pop up type the name of the simple problem and click OK The problem will be added to the end of the current course document folder. Note: Your new problem will be active the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. 4. Click the title of the simple problem you created listed in main course documents. 5. At the Simple problem screen, click the Simple problem editor link in the left hand corner. The Simple Problem screen will open. 6. Choose the Question Type from the Pull down Menu. 7. Type the simple problem in the Question text box. 8. Populate the foil information. 9. Click Store Changes  williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : Can I share simple problems created through the DOCs screen? No, you can not share these problems. Problems created in DOCS is just for simple one time use. Sharability and re-usability of DOCS is exactly like in BlackBoard or WebCT. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to upload a document from your hard drive? To upload a file from your hard drive into the course, do the following: 1. Create the document, and save it to your hard drive. 2. Log in to the course you want to add content to. 3. Click DOCS on the remote control 4. In the Upload a new main course document or supplement course document area, either type the path to your document or click the Browse… button to find it on your hard drive. 5. Type the title in the Title text box. 6. Click Upload Document. Note: Your new file will be visible the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to import a LON-CAPA resource. You must be the course coordinator to import resources into your course. Any resource from the LON-CAPA network can be imported into your course documents. To import a resource, do the following: 1. At the User Roles screen, select the role Course Coordinator. 2. Click DOCS on the remote control. 3. At the Course document screen, click the Import button in the Import a Published Document. 4. The Browse Resources screen will open with a view of the LON-CAPA network, Navigate to find the desired resource. Note: If you don’t know exactly what resource you want, you can click Search to pull up the LON-CAPA search interface. 6. Click the boxes next to the resources you want to import. 7. Click GROUP IMPORT at the top of the screen. At this point you can re-arrange the order prior to insertion into the course document sequence, go back and collect more resources, or cancel the process. 8. Click FINISH IMPORT, the resources will be added into your course documents. Note: Your new resources will be visible the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to add external resources. Any resource not included in the LON-CAPA network can be added to a course by doing the following: 1. Log in to the course you want to add a resource to. 2. Click DOCS on the remote control. 3. At the Course Document screen, click the External Resource button located in the Special Documents column. 4. Type in the title of the web resource you wish to add in the Title text box. 5. Type in the URL of the web resource in the URL: text box. 6. Click View to see if the web resource is in the frame below the entry fields. 7. Click Choose to add the web resource to the course. Note: Your new resources will be visible the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : What is the Navigate Course Content screen? A Navigate Course Content page will display the exact same page as the NAV button on the remote control. This page displays the resources in the Main Course Sequence. They are the documents the user will use the navigation controls to move through, and makeup the course itself. When a user enters the course they will be taken to the first resource listed in the main course documents, and as they proceed forward through the course, they will proceed towards the last resource. Putting a Navigate Content page into your course allows you to place that screen on the sequence the students will see. Some instructors like to use this as the first page in the course. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to organize your course using folders. You can add folders to you Course Doccument screen to organize your course. Folders can act as sequences, chapters, modules, or homework sets. To add folders to your course, do the following: 1. Log in to the course you wish to add folders to. 2. Click DOCS on the remote control. 3. At the Course Document screen, click the New Folder button in the Special Document Column. 4. At the pop up window, type the name of the new folder and click OK. The folder will appear at the bottom of the course document area you added it to. 5. To add resourses to the folder, click on the folder you created. A new course document screen will open, but you should see that the Course Document now reads Folder: followed by the folder name, and the folder is empty. You can now add resourses to the folder, exactly as they are added in the "top-level" Course Documents area.How to add Course Content to a course. Note: Your new folders will be active the next time you log in, or by clicking the re-initialize button on the course document screen, whichever comes first. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to edit your personal information page. To edit your personal information page, do the following: 1. Click PREF on the remote control 2. Click EDIT the 'About Me' personal information screen button 3. At the Personal Information screen, update your personal information. 4. Click Store Note: The My Personal Info page is a special page that belongs to you, not the course. Everywhere you insert the Personal Info page it will have the same contents, and all changes made to one will propagate to all the others. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : How to check if resources have been updated. To see which resources have been updated over a specific time frame, do the following: 1. Click Doc on the remote control. 2. Click Checking Version button to see which resources have been updated. By default, when you import a resource, you always import the latest resource. You can browse and choose the option to see all versions and lock a particular version in place.  williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : What is the Verify Content button on DOCS? To view warnings and errors in resource code for the course documents you would click on the Verify Content button on DOCS. Warnings in html pages are ok. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : What is the open date? The open date is the date and time when you first allow the students to view and work on problems. By default, all problems are viewable immediately after being added using the DOCS screen. You can change this default by deleting the course level open date. NOTE: Parameters only control access to problems. WebPages are always viewable. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : Adding pdf, word, excel and other file types to your course. Uploading documents with DOCS is meant to support other file types such as pdf, doc, excel, etc. How to upload a document from your hard drive? felicia@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Course Content : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Calendar How to use the calendar. williams@lon-capa.org Subcategories: Answers in this category: How to add announcements to the calendar. How to remove announcements from the calendar. [New Answer in "Calendar"] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Calendar : How to add announcements to the calendar. A user can add an announcement to the calendar by clicking CLDR on the remote control. The Announcements and Calendar screen will open. Using the pull down menus click on the Starting date, time and the Ending date, time. Type the announcement in text box and click Post Announcement. The announcement will now appear on the specific date(s) on the calendar. Today's announcements will also show up on the Roles screen, next to the respective courses, and on the Course Syllabus page. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Calendar : How to remove announcements from the calendar. A user can remove an announcement from the calendar by clicking CLDR on the remote control. The Announcements and Calendar screen will open. Scroll down the screen to view the calendar shown on the screen. If the announcement is in the current month then check the box next to the announcement. If the announcement is not in the current month then use the previous month, and next month links to move to the correct month. After the user has selected the announcement click Remove Checked Entries. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Roles williams@lon-capa.org Subcategories: [New Answer in "Roles"] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Roles : How to create Custom Roles. To create a custom role, do the following: 1. Click CURS on the remote control. 2. At the Create Users, Change User Privileges screen under the heading Edit Custom Role Privileges, select Generate New Role... from the pull down menu. 3. In the text box Type the name of the new role your creating. 4. Click Custom Role Editor. The screen will display the privileges available to select for this role. 6. Select the privileges you wish this custom role to have. 7.Click Define Role. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Roles : How to edit a Custom Role Privileges To edit a custom role privileges, do the following: 1. Click CUSR on the remote control. 2. At the Create Users, Change User Privileges screen under the heading Edit Custom Role Privileges, select the role you wish to edit from the pull down menu. 3. Click Custom Role Editor. The screen will display the privileges set and available to select for this role. 4. Update the privileges you wish this custom role to have. 5. Click Define Role. williams@lon-capa.org, bowersj2@msu.edu [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Course Management : Roles : How a user can see what courses they have access to and what their roles are. The User Role screen shows the user the courses they have access to, the roles they have, and the start and end dates for each roll. To access this information click ROLES or COURSES on the remote control and the screen will change to the User Role Screen. williams@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring Anything related to authoring Subcategories: Authoring Problems Authoring Maps Publishing [New Answer in "Authoring"] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems Homework Problems, etc Subcategories: [New Answer in "Authoring Problems"] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : HTML to TeX conversions Will <table >s get converted well to TeX tables for printing-- or should one set up tables in TeX and use <m > to convert them to HTML? Yes, html tables will be converted to TeX in the print script. If you wish, you can put a TeX table in the resource using the <m > tag instead. Either method will work. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Why can't the students see the <img>s that the author sees? Trivial answer: Possibly because the author needs to include appropriate <allow > tags in the XML for the specific images. These tags are generated automatically for "non-dynamic" <img > tags but not for dynamically specified ones. Thus, for example: <img src="/res/domain/name/subdir/$variable.gif" /> will cause the tag

<allow src="res/domain/name/subdir/$variable.gif" /> to be automatically generated and appear just prior to the </problem > tag. However, that is non-functional because there is no specific image having that name. (It would probably be better if it were not generated at all.) The author will have to hand-generate an appropriate allow tag for any images that may translate to$variable.gif.

A global specification such as <allow src="/res/domain/name/subdir/*.gif" /> seems to work OK.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
Can one safely omit "<th>" tags in "<table>"s if headers are undesired?
<th ></th > tag is not necessary, but headers can help make your resource more accessible, especially with users with visual impairments that use screen-readers to view the web.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
Why did I get text boxes instead of drop-down boxes in the option-response editior?
If you create an option response problem, the options that correspond to all of your foils MUST be listed as an option.

The template defaults with the options "True" and "False", but you want the options "Red", "Blue", and "Green". If you delete "True" and "False" first, you will notice that the foils have the words "True" and "False" in text boxes now. This is because the option does not exist in the main list.

To avoid this problem, add all your new options first, change the foils to what you want them to be and pick the correct option for each foil. Finally, you can delete the options you don't want, in this case "True" and "False"

When deleting an option from a multiple option response problem, in order to avoid losing the information associated with the foils associated with the option, the "correct option" entry is made a text entry box. This allows you to add a new option and change the preexisting foils to match this new option. Otherwise you would have to reenter the foils to change the option name.

All foils for an <optionresponse> question only will present the options from the list of options you defined.
The "Typed In Value" option does not allow a student to "type in" a value but for an instructor to say that the correct option for ths foil comes from a variable.
This option is most often used when coupled with a <randomlabel> problem. Or where you are randomizing the probelm text.
If you want the student to provide a typed in answer, use the String Response.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
What's a foil?
"Foil" is the term we used for the statements in radio-response and option-response problems.  For example:

Which of the statements are true and which are false:
2 is greater than 4
5 is less than 10
7 is odd
6 is odd
4 is even

Each of the statements above are a foil and the "options" are True and False given in the drop-down boxes.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
My students see 1.33333333333 as their answer, can I format this?
Yes.  In the parameter for the numerical response, you can use the following:

2e  (answer will display as 1.33e01)
2f  (answer will display as 1.33)
$format (you can use a variable where$format evaluates to something like "2e".

For those who use XML to code thier problems:

<numericalresponse answer="$answer"> (shows all digits) <numericalresponse answer="$answer" format="2e"> (for example prints 1.23e-04)
<numericalresponse answer="$answer" format="$format">
<numericalresponse answer="@answer" foramt="$format"> <numericalresponse answer="@answer" foramt="@format">  If you want your answers to a numerical problem to display only digits after the decimal when answers are shown, then enter "2f" in the format box next to the numerical answer box. 2f - 3.333333 will be displayed 3.33 0f - 3.333333 will be displayed 3 2E - 333.3333 will be displayed 3.33 E2 [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How can I add a picture to my problem? First, you will need to upload the graphic (e.g. .gif or .jpg file) to your construction space and then publish it. THen in the text area of your problem, add the following:  <img src="/res/DOMAIN/AUTHOR/directory-of-picture/picture.jpg" /> (Advanced Users) You can also have:  <img src="$picture" />
If $picture is one of many ranomized graphics, you will need to "Edit XML" and add all the various graphics to the <allow > tags at the bottom. Look at other problems that have images to see how the <allow > tag should be formatted. More complete is the following: <img src="picture.jpg" alt="(Picture of Large Duck)" width="400" TeXwidth="50%" /> This will probably alternate text for ADA-compliance and non-graphical browsers. The Web version will show up at 400 pixels wide (though it's typically better to use the natural width of the figure). In this case, the width of the figure in TeX will be half of one column. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How do I create a problem? To create problems, do the following: 1.) Become author 2.) Go into the appropriate folder 3.) In the drop-down box near the very top that says "Select Action" select the option "New Problem" 4.) In the text-box next to the drop-down box that says "Type Name Here" type the name of your new problem. 5.) Click Go 6.) Click the continue button after you are prompted on the new screen. 7.) Select a problem template on the new screen from the drop-down box. 8.) Click the Create Problem button. 9.) Use the Edit button to edit the problem template.  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How do I display dollar signs in my problem? if you did$dollar='$'; this will work however this is a bad idea. Have them do this: Script:$a=&random(1,10,.01);

Text:
You have $${a} monies. If they want to use  in the answer they will need to do a string answer type. They will also need to do this: Script: a=&random(1,10,.01); answer=''.a; Text: You have$${a} or $answer monies. Response: <stringresponse answer="$answer">
You can also use:

<display>&prettyprint($var,'$2f')</display>
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
How do I code an absolute value?
in the script block:
$a=-2;$c=&abs($a); in the text block: I have$a and $c. displays: I have -2 and 2. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Parameters for parts problems You should fill in the parameter fields as Name: tol Description: Tolerance no matter which part it is in. The system will take care of putting the [Part: num] for you when it is published. The same goes for sig and "Signficant Digits" [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Where are the LON-CAPA units defined? /res/adm/includes/capa.units As of April 11, 2002: # The LearningOnline Network with CAPA # Physical Unit definitions # #$Id: 94,v 1.9 2003/06/13 20:08:58 apache Exp $# # Copyright Michigan State University Board of Trustees # # This file is part of the LearningOnline Network with CAPA (LON-CAPA). # # LON-CAPA is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify # it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by # the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or # (at your option) any later version. # # LON-CAPA is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, # but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of # MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the # GNU General Public License for more details. # # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License # along with LON-CAPA; if not, write to the Free Software # Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA # # /home/httpd/html/adm/gpl.txt # # http://www.lon-capa.org/ # # # ======================= Unit section ============= # Base Unit # name symbol comment << Base Unit >> meter m # length kilogram kg # mass second s # time ampere A # electric current kelvin K # thermodynamic temperature mole mol # amount of substance candela cd # luminous intensity decibel dB # log of pressure amplitude # Prefix symbol factor << Prefix >> yotta Y 10^{24} zetta Z 10^{21} exa E 10^{18} peta P 10^{15} tera T 10^{12} giga G 10^9 mega M 10^6 kilo k 10^3 hecto h 10^2 deci d 10^-1 centi c 10^-2 milli m 10^-3 micro u 10^-6 nano n 10^-9 pico p 10^{-12} femto f 10^{-15} atto a 10^{-18} zepto z 10^{-21} yocto y 10^{-24} # Derived Unit # name symbol unit comment # name must be in oneword <<Derived Unit>> gram g 0.001 kg # mass day day 24.0 hr # time year yr 365.24 day # time hour hr 3600. s # time hour h 3600. s # time minute min 60 s # time pound lb 0.45359237 kg # mass ounce oz 1.77185E-3 kg # mass inch in 2.54 cm # length foot ft 12 in # length mile mi 5280 ft # length yard yd 0.9144 m # length nautical_mile n_mi 6080 ft # length, nautical mile (UK) rood rood 1210 yd^2 # area, rood acre acre 4840 yd^2 # area, acre hertz Hz 1/s # frequency litre L 10^3*cm^3 # volume newton N m*kg/s^2 # force pound_force lbf 4.44822 N # force dyne dyn 1E-5 N # force pascal Pa N/m^2 # pressure, stress bar bar 1E5 Pa # pressure mmHg mmHg 1.33322E2 Pa # pressure, millimeter of mercury torr torr 1 mmHg # pressure atm atm 760 torr # standard atmosphere joule J N*m # energy, work, heat electronvolt eV 1.6021892E-19 J # energy calorie cal 4.1868 J # energy Btu Btu 1.05506E3 J # energy watt W J/s # power, radiant flux coulomb C A*s # electric charge volt V J/C # electric potential, electromotive force ohm ohm V/A # electric resistance, use this in /ANS ohm ohms V/A # electric resistance ohm Ohm V/A # electric resistance ohm Ohms V/A # electric resistance siemens S 1/Ohm # electric conductance farad F C/V # electric capacitance tesla T V*s/m^2 # magnetic flux density weber Wb V*s # magnetic flux henry H V*s/A # inductance radian rad m/m # plane angle degree deg 1.745329E-2 rad # plane angle (Pi rad=180 deg) steradian sr m^2 /m^2 # solid angle lumen lm cd*sr # luminous flux lux lx cd*sr/m^2 # illuminance becquerel Bq 1/s # activity (radioactive) gray Gy J/kg # absorbed dose (of radiation) sievert Sv J/kg # dose equivalent (dose equivalent index) astroUnit AU 1.49598E11 m # mean distance earth to sun celcius degC 1 K # multiplicatively OK farenheight degF .5555555555 K # multiplicatively OK  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How do units work? English http://capa4.lite.msu.edu/devolibrary/Links/UnitsSymbolsT2.html Hungarian http://capa4.lite.msu.edu/devolibrary/Links/UnitsSymbolsTh.html The above pages describe how units are used in CAPA (and LON-CAPA). If you enter two units with a space, multiplication assumed. For example, if you enter "N m", that is that equivalent to a J. Spaces are not allowed for the multiplier prefixes? In other words, you can't enter "k m" and have that be equivalent to a km.  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How do I define the default tolerance of a problem? > I have a pink parameters box so I can enter a tolerance. > > What do I put in for Name? tol > What do I put in for Type? tolerance > What do I put in for Description? Numerical Tolerance > What do I put in for Default? 2% > Are all of those fields necessary, or can I just put in "tol" for Name > and "2%" for Default and leave the rest blank? That would work, but without the tolerance for type, you can't change it without changing the problem, and without a description it will call it (tol) in the parmset screen.  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : temperature units There is K degC and degF degC == K So don't ask for absolute temperatures, only delta tempatures.  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Is there anything special I need to do to prepare for exam-style questions? The following is from an email from myself, Guy Albertelli, and Ed Kashy. > As for the exam dual mode, I wonder if there is a way for Guy to program > LON-CAPA such that if a problem is put in a *.exam file and it happens > to be a <numerical responce> problem, then the conversion to exam mode > will happen automatically. This is the plan. There might need to be some hints from the instructor about whether it is an online vs. a bubble sheet style exam. > I'm copying this message to Guy. If Guy thinks that we will need to > use an <exam-style > tag, We decided that this was an unnesseary idea. Additionally when a .problem/.exam/.quiz/.survey file is stuck in to a map you can change it's "behavior" from the default of what the extension implies to however you care to use it.  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : tolerance? A tolerance of 2% means the student can be off by 2% and still get the answer correct. A tolerance of 2 means that the student can be off by +/-2 [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Formula response questions with XML example <problem > <script type="loncapa/perl">$coeff1=&random(1,5,.1);
$coeff2=&random(1,5,.1);$power1=&random(1,4,1);
$power2=&random(1,4,1);$answer="$coeff1*x^$power1+$coeff2*y^$power2";
</script >
<startouttext />Answer is <m eval="on">answer $</m ><endouttext /> <formularesponse samples="x,y@1,-1:3,10#10;10,1.01:1000,-1000#4" answer="$answer">
<responseparam name="tol" type="tolerance" description="Numerical Tolerance"
default="1%" />
<textline size="50" />
<hintgroup >
</hintgroup >
</formularesponse >
</problem >

The samples is supposed to be the points you sample the equation
at. It lists the variables first (comma seperated) then an @ then

(
(a comma seperated list of numbers equal to the number of variables)
or
(a comma seperated list of numbers equal to the number of variables,
followed by an : followed by a comma seperated list of numbers equal
to the number of variables, followed by a # folowed by an integer)
)

Then optionally a ; and more of the numbers

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
How do I put a table in my problem?
Make your variables in a script block:

$a = 1;$b = 2;
$c = 3;$d = 4;

Two ways to make a table:

First Method:

Make a table in dreamweaver (or any other html editor).  Use the
variables ($a,$b, etc.) in the table.  Take the html code from your
table (everything between <table > and </table >) and paste into the text
block.

Auxilliary First Method:

(I've never tried this, but give it a shot).  Save your table as some
space.  In the textblock of your problem, type:
<import >/res/msu/ciskepau/your-directory/table.html</import >
Tell me if this works!

Second Method:

Type the HTML code into the textblock yourself:

<table >
<tr >
<td > stuff for row one, column one </td >
<td > stuff for row one, column two </td >
<td > $a </td > </tr > <tr > <td > stuff for row two, column one </td > <td > stuff for row two, column two </td > <td >$b </td >
</tr >
<tr >
<td > stuff for row three, column one </td >
<td > stuff for row three, column two </td >
<td > $c </td > </tr > <tr > <td > stuff for row four, column one </td > <td > stuff for row four, column two </td > <td >$d </td >
</tr >
</table >
I've written a routine to produce tables easily for my problems which
might be useful to people.  Here's a quick description of how to use it:

1) import the library
put this at the top of your problem (before any script blocks)
<import>/res/msu/hamlinmi/lib/MyLib.library</import>

2) construct the table
array (each row in sequence):
$p1 = random(450,500); # some random data... ... # the table entries in order... @data = ('age','number of births (thousands)', '18-25',$p1,
'26-35',$p2, '36-50',$p3,
'51-65',$p4);$table = &DTable(2,@data);   # create a 2-column table

3) display the table
In your problem text (or even outside of an "outtext" block)
simply
<display>table</display> Notes using DTable: 1) the table is centered. If you don't like that, use the GTable routine instead. Currently thats the only difference between them. 2) because the table is displayed usnig <display>, entries in the table cannot contain markup (HTML), unless you specifically prepare them for both output modes, by using the web() function for example. In other words, don't feed this to DTable: @data = ( '<i>heading</i>', 'data', ... ); because although this would look fine on the web, it would NOT print properly. If you really want those italics, do something like this instead, which should print fine: @data = ( web('','{\em heading}','<i>heading</i>'), '', ... ); 3) columns are usually center aligned by default, although you can change this:o_calign = 'rl';  # column alignments: right, left
$table = &DTable(2,@data); The$o_calign string has one letter for each column, acceptable
letters are {r, l, c}.  For those familiar with LaTeX, this
string is passed as the first parameter for a tabular environment,
and you may also include vertical bars "|" for vertical dividers
o_calign = 'c|cl'; # vertical bar between column 1 and 2table = &DTable(3,@data);  # 3 columns
Currently you can only add bars to the LaTeX output, not the web
output.. (hope to get it for web too eventually)

4) other options to control the display of the table are also
working.  Simply set the value of these variables before calling
the DTable routine.
This one sets the absolute text size:
$o_tsize = 3; # use a large text font$o_tsize = -2;  # use small text (any value -4 to 5 accepted)
This one appends (or prepends) text to all table entries:
$o_utag = ' cm'; # append ' cm' to every table entry$o_utag = '^the ';  # prepend 'the ' to every entry
$o_utag = web('^$','^\$','^$');  # prepend This one prepends each table entry with a label (Note: if you use this, column alignment defaults to left instead of center):o_labelt = 'A';  # label entries with capital letters
$o_labelt = 'a'; # label with lowercase letters$o_labelt = '1';  # label with numbers
These options currently affecting LaTeX output only (at some point
they should affect web output too):
$o_vskip = 2; # add 2mm space after each line$o_hbars = ' -  ';   # horizontal line below 1st row (3-row table)
$o_hbars = '- -'; # horizontal line above and below 4-row table More improvements are eventually coming... hamlinmi@msu.edu Click on the link titled "Show this answer as Text" to see the code examples I gave in the correct form.   The FAQ-o-Matic has its own markup rules and it doesn't show the text as I typed it... hamlinmi@msu.edu [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : What do I do about warnings? GET RID OF THEM! Make sure all your tags have a closing tag or have a slash at the end (<br ></br > can be denoted <br />). Problems should have no warnings! Plain HTML pages _may_ be able to handles some of the warnings, but problems should be warning free. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Display TeX, using &tex, <tex >, <web >, etc &tex('tex argument','web argument') could become <tex >tex argument</tex ><web >web argument</web > inside of <tex >, <m >, and &tex():$ math mode $$$display equation mode$$ $display equation mode$ [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Is there a LON-CAPA analog to the CAPA functions? Yes, for example random(1.0,10.0,0.5) can be replaced by &random(1.0,10.0,0.5). All of the CAPA functions can work in the LON-CAPA script - just put a "&" in front. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : When I click ScriptVars in constructions space, what does$" mean?
$" is the default list seperator value. It always shows up. Don't worry about it. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How do I center an entire problem, including the [Submit Answers] button? > > The centering problem: > > > > <problem > > > <startouttext /> > > <center ><table ><tr ><td > > > <endouttext /> > > <part > > > </part > > > <startouttext /> > > </td ></tr ></table ></center > > > <endouttext /> > > </problem > > > > > Works. There is the problem of having no part 0 anymore, but if all of > > their problems are based of this template all new problems will be a > > part 11 problem. > > Is the <part ></part > necessary? > Yes, if you want the submit button and computer feedback centered as well. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How do I make a dynamically generated plot? Dynamically generated plots are used to produce graphs which will be different for each student who views them. The plots are produced by calling 'gnuplot', and in fact the xml tag for the plots is <gnuplot >. Online help for the <gnuplot > tag is available by accessing the 'help' link when editing the problem. Dynamically generated plots should be used in conjunction with a perl script block which generates the data to be plotted. If you are using static data a dynamically generated plot is not appropriate because of the overhead associated with generating the plot. There are a great deal of parameters that can be set for a plot. These parameters are accessed by including various sub-tags. By default only the <gnuplot > tag and <curve > tag are present in a plot. The sub-tags allow you to define the axes of the plot, the presence of a key, the placement of gridlines, and the title and legends on the plot. The example given below shows the use of the <axis > sub-tag to set the domain and range shown in the graph. Below is an example which produces a simple plot. To use it, create a new problem and [edit xml]. Remove all of the text and replace it with the text below:  <problem> <script type="loncapa/perl">$amplitude = &random(3,5,1);
for ($x=-6.0;$x<=6.0; $x+=0.05) { push @X,$x;
push @Y, $amplitude * sin($x);
}
</script>
<gnuplot font="medium" width="400" grid="on" height="300" border="on"
fgcolor="x000000" alttag="dynamically generated plot" align="center"
bgcolor="xffffff" transparent="off">
<axis ymin="-6.0" ymax="6.0" xmin="-5.0" xmax="5.0" color="x000000" />
<curve
linestyle="lines"
pointtype="1"
pointsize="1"
name=""
color="x000000">
<data >@X</data>
<data >@Y</data>
</curve>
</gnuplot>
<startouttext /><br />
What is the amplitude of this function?
<endouttext />
<numericalresponse answer="$amplitude"> <responseparam type="tolerance" default="5%" name="tol" description="Numerical Tolerance" /> <responseparam name="sig" type="int_range,0-16" default="0,15" description="Significant Figures" /> <textline /> </numericalresponse> </problem> Below is a screenshot (in construction space) of the resulting plot. It's likely that the above plot doesn't quite look right. It would be nice to have the gridlines drawn every 1 unit instead of every 2 units. A title, and labels on the axes, would be a nice addition. Although it's overkill for this example, we can also add a key for the plot. We can accomplish these changes by inserting sub-tags into the <gnuplot> tag. Gridlines can be set using the <xtics> and <ytics> tags. The names of these tags correspond to the names of the commands used in gnuplot. We specify the beginning, end, and increment of the tick marks. Gnuplot only puts gridlines on the tick marks. Inserting the <title>, <xlabel>, and <ylabel> commands allows us to set the title and axes labels as one would expect. Inserting a <key> tag, but not changing any of the information in it, signals gnuplot to place a key in the graph. If we decide we don't want the key, deleting the <key> tag will remove it from the graph. These changes in the xml are shown below and a screenshot of the new plot is provided as well.  <problem> <script type="loncapa/perl">$amplitude = &random(3,5,1);
for ($x=-6.0;$x<=6.0; $x+=0.05) { push @X,$x;
push @Y, $amplitude * sin($x);
}
</script>
<gnuplot font="medium" width="400" grid="on" height="300" border="on"
fgcolor="x000000" alttag="dynamically generated plot" align="center"
bgcolor="xffffff" transparent="off">
<key title="" pos="top right" box="off" />
<ylabel >Y</ylabel>
<xlabel >X</xlabel>
<title >A sample plot</title>
<xtics end="5.0" location="border" start="-5.0" increment="1.0" mirror="on" />
<ytics end="6.0" location="border" start="-6.0" increment="1.0" mirror="on" />
<axis ymin="-6.0" ymax="6.0" xmin="-5.0" xmax="5.0" color="x000000" />
<curve linestyle="lines" pointtype="1" pointsize="1" name="f(x)"
color="x000000">
<data >@X</data>
<data >@Y</data>
</curve>
</gnuplot>
<startouttext />
<br />
What is the amplitude of this function?
<endouttext />
<numericalresponse answer="$amplitude"> <responseparam type="tolerance" default="5%" name="tol" description="Numerical Tolerance" /> <responseparam name="sig" type="int_range,0-16" default="0,15" description="Significant Figures" /> <textline /> </numericalresponse> </problem> [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How can I create a dynamic plot of a piecewise defined function? I want to plot a piecewise defined function similar to  f(x)= a*x + b if (x < 4.5) f(x)= a*x if (x >= 4.5) Below is xml for creating a dynamic plot based on this. The work is done in the <script ></script > block that generates the data sets used in the plot.  <script type="loncapa/perl" >$a = &random(2,5,1);
$b = &random(3,6,1); for ($x = 0; $x<4.5;$x+= 0.05) {
push @X, $x; push @Y,$a*$x +$b;
}

for ($x = 4.5;$x<=10; $x+= 0.05) { push @X,$x;
push @Y, $a*$x;
}
</script >
<gnuplot font="medium" width="500" grid="on" height="400" border="on"
fgcolor="x000000" alttag="dynamically generated plot" align="center"
bgcolor="xffffff" transparent="off" >
<curve linestyle="lines" pointsize="1" pointtype="1" color="x000000"
name="">
<data >@X</data >
<data >@Y</data >
</curve >
</gnuplot >
The above script works, but it produces a plot that looks like the one below:

A better solution is to use two seperate <curve > statements to plot two separate curves. So on the second piece of the function we use @X2 and @Y2 instead of @X and @Y. Then in the <gnuplot > tag we include a second <curve > sub-tag.

 <script type="loncapa/perl" >
$a = &random(2,5,1);$b = &random(3,6,1);

for ($x = 0;$x<4.5; $x+= 0.05) { push @X,$x;
push @Y, $a*$x + $b; } for ($x = 4.5; $x<=10;$x+= 0.05) {
push @X2, $x; push @Y2,$a*x; } </script > <gnuplot font="medium" width="500" grid="on" height="400" border="on" fgcolor="x000000" alttag="dynamically generated plot" align="center" bgcolor="xffffff" transparent="off" > <curve linestyle="lines" pointsize="1" pointtype="1" color="x000000" name="" > <data >@X</data > <data >@Y</data > </curve > <curve linestyle="lines" pointsize="1" pointtype="1" color="x000000" name="" > <data >@X2</data > <data >@Y2</data > </curve > </gnuplot > This is still not a desirable result. Typically one wants an open circle or closed circle defining the domain of each piece. Unfortunately there is no easy way to do this in gnuplot currently. If this effect is desired, perhaps using a static image and a randomlabel problem would be the best approach. A second solution would be to add data which draws a circle to your curves. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Gnuplot Example 1 <problem> <script type="loncapa/perl"> # Enter computations herem = random(-3,3,2);
$b = random(-4,3,1);$equation = "$m*x+$b";
</script>

<gnuplot font="small" samples="100" width="500" grid="on" height="300"
alttag="Linear Plot" border="on" fgcolor="x000000"
align="center" bgcolor="xffffff" transparent="off">
<xtics
end=" 10.0"
location="border"
start="-10.0"
increment="1.0"
mirror="on" />
<ytics
end=" 10.0"
location="border"
start="-10.0"
increment="1.0"
mirror="on" />
<axis ymin="-4.0" ymax="4.0" xmin="-6.0" xmax="6.0" color="x000099" />
<xlabel>X</xlabel>
<ylabel>Y</ylabel>
<curve linestyle="lines" pointtype="0" name="Line" color="x000000">
<function>$equation</function> </curve> <curve linestyle="lines" pointtype="1" pointsize="1" name="" color="x000000" > <data>-10,0,10</data> <data>0,0,0</data> </curve> <curve linestyle="lines" pointtype="1" pointsize="1" name="" color="x000000" > <data>0,0,0</data> <data>-10,0,10</data> </curve> </gnuplot> <startouttext /><br /> What is the slope of the line graphed above? <endouttext /> <numericalresponse answer="$m">
<responseparam name="tol" type="tolerance" description="Numerical Tolerance" default="5%" />
<responseparam name="sig" type="int_range,0-16" description="Significant Figures" default="0,15" />
<textline />

</numericalresponse>
</problem>



hallmat3@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
Gnuplot Example 2
<problem>

<script type="loncapa/perl">
# Enter computations here
#
# We will plot the graph of y=a sin((x-b)/2pi) by generating points
#
# The points will be stored in two arrays, @X and @Y.
#
$a = &random(2,5,0.5);$b = &random(0,4,1);

$x_min = -8;$x_max =  8;
$x_delta = 0.1; for ($x = $x_min;$x<=$x_max;$x+=$x_delta) { push (@X,$x);
push (@Y,($a*sin(($x-$b)/2*$pi)) );
}
</script>

<gnuplot font="large" width="600" samples="100" grid="on" height="300"
alttag="Sine Curve Plot" border="on" fgcolor="x000000"
align="center" bgcolor="xffffff" transparent="off">
<axis ymin="-5" ymax="5" xmin="$x_min" xmax="$x_max" color="x000000" />
<curve linestyle="linespoints" pointtype="0" color="x000000" name="Sine Curve">
<data>@X</data>
<data>@Y</data>
</curve>
</gnuplot>

<startouttext /><br />
What is the amplitude of the sine curve graphed above?
<endouttext />

<numericalresponse answer="$a"> <responseparam name="tol" type="tolerance" description="Numerical Tolerance" default="5%" /> <responseparam name="sig" type="int_range,0-16" description="Significant Figures" default="0,15" /> <textline /> </numericalresponse> </problem>  hallmat3@msu.edu [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Can I create a problem which presents a choice from completely different questions? Yes. e.g. (where * = a response type, such as "radiobutton", "string", "numerical") <randomlist show="1"> <*response id="11"> ...statement and response parameters etc... < /*response> <*response id="12"> ...statement and response parameters etc... < /*response> <*response id="13"> ...statement and response parameters etc... < /*response> < /randomlist> The above will produce a single question that is selected randomly from the different questions delineated by the <*response >< /*response> tags. OR You could put the individual problem choices in libraries -- and choose problem parts from selected groups: <part id="11"> <randomlist show="1"> <import id="12">sample1.library< /import> <import id="13">sample2.library< /import> <import id="14">sample3.library< /import> < /randomlist> < /part> <part id="15"> <randomlist show="1"> <import id="16">sample4.library< /import> <import id="17">sample5.library< /import> <import id="18">sample6.library< /import> < /randomlist> < /part> The above will make a two-part problem where there is one library chosen from each group of three. CAUTION: It is advisable NOT to use <randomlist show="1"> <part id="11">whatever< /part> <part id="12">whatever< /part> <part id="13">whatever< /part> < /randomlist> as this will create multiple (redundant or useless) part numbers in PARM and SPRS and make grading and course management more difficult.  batchelo@sfu.ca [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Equation Entry Example  <problem> <script type="loncapa/perl"> # Enter computations here$x1 = random(2,4,1);
$y1 = random(3,7,1);$x2 = random($x1+1,9,1);$y2 = random($y1+1,15,1);$m = "($y2-$y1)/($x2-$x1)";
$b = "$y1-$m*$x1";
$answer = "$m*x+$b";$answer =~ s/\+-/-/g;
$answer =~ s/-\+/-/g; </script> <startouttext /> <p> What is the equation of the line which passess through ($x1,$y1) and ($x2,$y2)? </p> y = <endouttext /> <formularesponse samples="x@-5:5#11" id="11" answer="$answer">
<textline size="25" />
</formularesponse>

</problem>



hallmat3@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
When to use <display> tag
Functions that must be inside of a <display> when outputting text:
&prettyprint
&tex
&web
&xmlparse

Functions that shouldn't be used but if used need it
&dollarformat (use pretty print instead with '$2f') &var_in_tex  More gory details: When coverting the HTML of a problem to LaTeX, Lon-CAPA assumes that the contents of the entire problem, and the contents of all variables that it expands is HTML,. LaTeX has some charactes that are special, as they tell it to do special things. In order to not have the characters that HTML generates confuse LaTeX we need to protect them. The problem with the &xmlparse(), &prettyprint() etc functions is that when printing, these functions rather than genearte HTML, they generate LaTeX code. So the assumption that everything is in HTML is wrong, and can cause things to break. Thus enters the <display> tag. The <display> tag says, that this variable's value or function's result is safe to pass directly to the LaTeX engine. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Adaptive Hints Adaptive or conditional hints in LON-CAPA Note: an extra space has been added before each tag closure in any tags included below so that the text will be displayed correctly by the FAQ-O-Matic. Hints are placed within <hintgroup ></hintgroup > tags. The first part of the hint is the condition, which includes a specification of the foil(s) and foil answer(s) required to trigger the hint. The answers specified in the hint condition are compared with the user's submission, and if the condition is met, the hint action included in the conditional hint block will be executed (for example this could be the display of a block of text). You can set multiple hint conditions for a particular problem. Hint conditions are identified by a name. The corresponding hint action includes this hint condition name in the "on" parameter). When a hint condition evaluates to true, the corresponding hint action is triggered. Besides providing hint actions within <hintpart on="NAME" ></hintpart > tags for each named (NAME) hint condition, a hint can be designated for display if none of the conditional hints evaluate to true. The default hint is not displayed if the conditions were met for any of the conditional hints. The default hint action is included between <hintpart on="default" ></hintpart > tags. There are five types of hint condition: Formula Hint condition Numerical Hint condition Option Response Hint condition Radiobutton Hint condition String Hint condition The syntax used to describe the foil(s) and the foil answer(s) differ for the five types: 1. Formula Hint condition The formulahint tag takes three parameters: answer, name, and samples. The "name" is the unique name given to the hint condition. The formula answer for which you wish to provide conditional is included in the answer parameter. The samples parameter includes the points (or range of points) over which sampling of the student's submitted answer and the formula included in the formula hint answer parameter are to be compared. The syntax is the same as used to specify sampling points in the samples parameter of the formula reponse tag itself. The formula submitted by the student is evaluated at the sample points for the hint and the calculated values are compared with the corresponding values determined by evaluating the "hint" answer at the same sampling points. A close correspondence between the two sets of values will trigger the hint action specified in the <hintpart > tag. <problem > <script type="loncapa/perl" ># Enter computations here$x1 = random(2,4,1);
$y1 = random(3,7,1);$x2 = random($x1+1,9,1);$y2 = random($y1+1,15,1);$m = "($y2-$y1)/($x2-$x1)";
$b = "$y1-$m*$x1";
$answer = "$m*x+$b";$answer =~ s/\+-/-/g;
$answer =~ s/-\+/-/g;$inverted = "($x2-$x1)/($y2-$y1)";
$wrongans = "$inverted*x";
$wrongans =~ s/\+-/-/g;$wrongans =~ s/-\+/-/g;
</script >

<startouttext /><p >
What is the equation of the line which passess through ($x1,$y1) and
($x2,$y2)?</p >
y =
<endouttext />

<formularesponse samples="x@-5:5#11" id="11" answer="$answer" > <textline size="25" / > <hintgroup > <formulahint samples="x@-5:5#11" answer="$wrongans" name="inversegrad" >
</formulahint >
<startouttext />You have inverted the slope in the question.  Slope is
(y2-y1)/(x2 - x1) you have the slope as (x2-x1)/(y2-y1).<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
</hintgroup >
</formularesponse >
</problem >

2. Numerical Response condition

The numericalhint tag takes four parameters: answer, name, unit and format.
The "name" is the unique name given to the hint condition. The numerical
answer for which you wish to provide conditional is included in the answer
parameter. Student submission of that answer in combination with the "unit"
parameter in the hint condition will trigger the hint action specified in the
<hintpart > tag.

<problem >
<startouttext />A car travels 10 km in 10 min.  What is the speed of the car?<endouttext />
<responseparam description="Numerical Tolerance" default="2%" type="tolerance" name="tol" />
<textline />
<hintgroup >
<responseparam description="Numerical Tolerance" type="tolerance" default="2%" name="tol" />
</numericalhint >
<hintpart on="speed">
<startouttext />You multiplied the distance by the time.  Remember speed = distance/time<endouttext />
</hintpart >
</hintgroup >
</numericalresponse >
</problem >

3. Option Response Hint condition

There are two types of option response hint conditions: one for standalone
foils and one for concept groups. In both cases the option hint tag includes
two parameters: answer and name for standalone foils, and concept and name for
foils grouped together in a concept group.   For the answer parameter, the
names and submitted values for each of the foils that are being included in
the hint condition are provided in a hash, i.e., in the format:
('Foil1'=>'True','Foil2'=>'False').  In the case of a conditional hint for a
concept group, the format of the concept parameter is also a hash that links
the name of each concept group included in the hint condition to either
'correct' or 'incorrect' - e.g.,  <optionhint
concept="('buoyancy'=>'correct','density'=>'correct')" name="fluids" / >
If 'correct' is specified for a named concept then when the conditional hint
is evaluated answers for each of the foils selected by a student must be correct for the hint action to be triggered.  If anything other than 'correct' is provided in the concept hash in the optionhint tag then then students
answers will be compared with the set answers for the foils in the concept
group and as long as at least one answer is incorrect (i.e., the concept group
was not correctly answered) then the corresponding hint action will be triggered.

(a) optionresponse

<problem >
<startouttext />For each of the following rock types, indicate whether or not the rock is a volcanic rock.<endouttext / >
<optionresponse max="10" randomize="yes" >
<foilgroup options="('Yes','No')" >
<foil location="random" value="No" name="schist" >
<startouttext />Schist<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil location="random" value="No" name="marble" >
<startouttext />Marble<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil location="random" value="Yes" name="basalt" >
<startouttext />Basalt<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil location="random" value="No" name="gabbro" >
<startouttext />Gabbro<endouttext />
</foil >
<foil location="random" value="No" name="granite" >
<startouttext />Granite<endouttext />
</foil >
</foilgroup >
<hintgroup >
<hintpart on="metamorphic">
<startouttext />Schist and Marble are both examples of metamorphic rocks
as described on page 2 of the textbook.<br / ><br / ><endouttext / >
</hintpart >
<hintpart on="plutonic" >
<startouttext />Granite and Gabbro are both examples of igneous rocks that crystallized beneath the surface, i.e., they are plutonic rocks.<br / ><br / ><endouttext / >
</hintpart >
<hintpart on="default" >
<startouttext />Volcanic rocks are described on page 22 of the
textbook.<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
</hintgroup >
</optionresponse >
</problem >

(b) optionresponse with concept groups

<problem >
<startouttext />Choose the likely plate boundary type, where you are most likely to encounter each of the following geologic features or phenomena.<endouttext / >
<optionresponse max="10" randomize="yes" >
<foilgroup options="('Convergent','Divergent','Transform')" >
<conceptgroup concept="faulting" >
<foil name="normal" value="Divergent" >
<startouttext / >Normal faults<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil name="strike" value="Transform" >
<startouttext / >Strike-slip faults<endouttext />
</foil >
<foil name="thrust" value="Convergent" >
<startouttext />Thrust faults<endouttext />
</foil >
</conceptgroup >
<conceptgroup concept="earthquakes" >
<foil name="deep" value="Convergent" >
<startouttext / >Large Magntitude, deep and intermediate focus earthquakes<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil name="shallow" value="Transform" >
<startouttext / >Large magnitude, shallow focus earthquakes<endouttext />
</foil >
<foil name="lowmag" value="Divergent" >
<startouttext / >Low magnitude shallow focus earthquakes<endouttext />
</foil >
</conceptgroup >
<conceptgroup concept="topography" >
<foil name="gentle" value="Divergent" >
<startouttext / >Broad area of elevated topography with a central rift valley.<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil name="linear" value="Transform" >
<startouttext / >A narrow linear fault zone with limited topgraphic expression.<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil name="trench" value="Convergent" >
<startouttext />A deep trench adjacent to a volcanic arc.<endouttext / >
</foil >
</conceptgroup >
<conceptgroup concept="volcanism" >
<foil name="explosize" value="Convergent" >
<startouttext />Explosive volcanism involving volatile-rich viscous magma.<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil name="fluid" value="Divergent" >
<startouttext />Non-explosive outpourings of low-viscosity magma.<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil name="nonvolcanic" value="Transform" >
<startouttext />No volcanic activity.<endouttext / >
</foil >
</conceptgroup >
</foilgroup >
<hintgroup >
<optionhint concept="('earthquakes' => 'incorrect')" name="quakes" / >
<optionhint concept="('volcanism' => 'incorrect')" name="volcactivity" / >
<optionhint concept="('topography' => 'incorrect')" name="relief" / >
<hintpart on="volcanism" >
<startouttext />Volcanism requires a source of magma. Magma can be generated by either a depression in the solidus caused by an influx of volatiles, or by decompression melting. Magma rich in volatiles tends to cause explosive volcanism.<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
<hintpart on="quakes" >
<startouttext />Earthquakes require brittle failure, so there is a correlation between the depth of earthquake foci and the geotherm.  The geotherm is depressed in subduction zones, and elevated at mid-ocean ridges.<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
<hintpart on="relief" >
<startouttext / >On a broad scale topography is an expression of density variation, as embodied in the concept of isostasy.  Density variation in the earth is a function of temperature and composition.  Cold oceanic crust entering a subduction zone is dense, whereas as magma is buoyant and of lower density.<br / ><br / ><endouttext / >
</hintpart >
<hintpart on="default" >
<startouttext / >The characteristics of plate boundaries are described on page 52 of the textbook.<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
</hintgroup >
</optionresponse >
</problem >

The radiobutton hint tag takes two parameters: answer and name.  The name is
the name of the hint condition, and the answer is an array. The first element
of the array will be 'foil'; the remaining elements are the names of the foils
that you require to have been checked by the student for the hint to be
displayed.  For example, if you create a radiobutton response problem with six
foils named: granite, gabbro, gneiss, shale, sandstone and schist, and you
want your hint named: igneous to be displayed when either granite or basalt

In order to trigger display of this hint you also need to create a
<hintpart ></hintpart > block that will include a textblock that contains the
text of the actual hint.
<hintpart on="igneous" >
<startouttext />This type of rock is composed of interlocking crystals, a
characteristic of igneous rocks.<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
The complete radiobutton response would look as follows:

<problem >
<startouttext />
Which of the following is a sedimentary rock?
<endouttext />

<foilgroup >
<foil location="random" value="false" name="granite" >
<startouttext / >
Granite
<endouttext / >
</foil >

<foil location="random" value="false" name="gabbro" >
<startouttext / >
Gabbro
<endouttext / >
</foil >

<foil location="random" value="false" name="schist">
<startouttext / >
Schist
<endouttext />
</foil >

<foil location="random" value="false" name="gneiss" >
<startouttext / >
Gneiss
<endouttext / >
</foil >

<foil location="random" value="true" name="shale" >
<startouttext / >
Shale
<endouttext / >
</foil >
<foil location="random" value="true" name="sandstone" >
<startouttext / >
Sandstone
<endouttext / >
</foil >

</foilgroup >
<hintgroup >

<hintpart on="igneous" >
<startouttext />This type of rock is composed of interlocking crystals, a
characteristic of igneous rocks.<br / ><br / ><endouttext / >
</hintpart >
<hintpart on="metamorphic" >
<startouttext />This type of rock is composed of oriented crystals, a
characteristic of foliated metamorphic rocks.<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
</hintgroup >
</problem >

5. String Hint condition

The radiobutton hint tag takes two parameters: answer and name.  The name is
the name of the hint condition, and the answer is a text string.  The type
parameter allows you to choose between case sensitive, case insensitive, and
case insensitive in any order. A simple example is shown below.

<problem >
<startouttext />Which US state has Lansing as its capital?<endouttext / >
<textline size="20" / >
<hintgroup >
</stringhint >
</stringhint >
<hintpart on="wisc">
<startouttext />The state capital of Wisconsin is Madison.<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
<hintpart on="minn">
<startouttext />The state capital of Minnesota is St. Paul.<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
<hintpart on="default" >
<startouttext />The state you are looking for is also known as the 'Great Lakes State'<endouttext / >
</hintpart >
</hintgroup >
</stringresponse >
</problem >
An adaptive hint example for string response with detailed explanation of the code is available at:
raeburn@msu.edu, felicia@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
How do I make a multi-part problem
<problem >

<startouttext /> DATA FOR ALL PROBLEM PARTS <endouttext />

<part >USE PART TAGS LIKE PROBLEM TAGS
</part >

<part >
</part >

<part >
</part >

</problem >
felicia@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems :
How do I have hints show up after more than 1 try?
The following problem code displays the hint for all tries greater than 1:

<problem >
<textline />
<hintgroup >
<hintpart on="default" >
<script type="loncapa/perl" >
$tries=&EXT("user.resource.resource.$external::part.tries");
</script >
<block condition="$tries > 1"> <startouttext />This is the hint text<endouttext /> </block > </hintpart > </hintgroup > </numericalresponse > </problem > [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How can I hard code the default maximum number of tries in a problem. The xml for this is <parameter description="Maximum Number of Tries" type="int_pos" default="1" name="maxtries"> Change the default="1" to whatever value you want. Note that this parameter applies to a problem part and is NOT a parameter inside a response block. It must appear outside the response block tags e.g. before < numericalresponse> but within the <part > tags for a parted problem. You can use the CSTR graphical Edit features to aid you in inserting the correct xml when doing this. However, as of LON-CAPA v1.2, there was not a drop list item to insert parameter tags inside a problem or problem part. You will have to go to "editXML" and enter a pair of <parameter > tags in the appropriate place. Once you have done that you will find in Edit that there is available a template for the maxtries parameter. batchelo@sfu.ca [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : how to display variables that must be parsed first In script block:$equation=&xmlparse('<m>$\theta$</m> &theta; ');

In text block:
<display>$equation</display> felicia@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : Specifying wrong answers for exam mode Example code shows how wrong answers are coded into a numerical response problem. <problem> <script type="loncapa/perl">$a=&random(50,150,10); #width in cm
$b=&random(.5,3.0,.1); #length in m$perimeter= 2*$a/100 + 2*$b;

# code to generate a randomly chosen wrong answer, while loop is used
# in case the correct answer is randomly chosen.  This code does not
# protect against the scenarial where $randomWrong is equal to one of # the other wrong answer though.$randomWrong=&random($perimeter-.9,$perimeter*2,10);
while($randomWrong ==$perimeter) {$randomWrong=&random($perimeter-.9,$perimeter*2,10)} # All the possible wrong answers are put in the array below # note that the maximum number of answer bubbles in order for LON-CAPA to use # this array of wrong answer is equal to the number wrong answers plus 1 for # the correct answer. @wrongAnswers =( 2*$a+2*$b,$a+$b,$a/100+$b,$a*$b,$a*$b/100,$randomWrong);</script>
<startouttext />What is the perimeter of a rectangle with a width of <num format="0f">$a</num> cm and length of <num format="2f">$b</num> meters?<endouttext />
<numericalresponse unit="m" format="1f" answer="$perimeter" incorrect="@wrongAnswers"> <responseparam type="tolerance" default="5%" name="tol" description="Numerical Tolerance" /> <responseparam name="sig" type="int_range,0-16" default="0,15" description="Significant Figures" /> <responseparam name="numbubbles" type="int_pos" default="7" description="Number of bubbles in exam mode" /> <textline readonly="no" /> <hintgroup showoncorrect="no"> <startouttext />Make sure you are solving for the perimeter and not the area!<endouttext /> </hintgroup> </numericalresponse> </problem> felicia@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : multiple correct answers for String Response problems using Regular Expressions An example: <problem> <script type="loncapa/perl"> @answertext = ("big","huge","large");$regexpans = join('|',@answertext);
$regexpans = '/^('.$regexpans.')\b/';</script>
<startouttext />Not small, but <endouttext />
<stringresponse answerdisplay="large, big, or huge" answer="$regexpans" type="re"> <textline readonly="no"> </textline> <hintgroup showoncorrect="no"> <startouttext /><endouttext /> </hintgroup> </stringresponse> </problem> felicia@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Problems : How can I use the quantity "pi" in a formularesponse? Define "pi" as a variable in the expression, but evaluate it at only one value, equal to the Perl variable "$pi".

Example:

<problem>
<startouttext />
<p>What is the area of a circle w.r.t. the radius, r.</p>
<endouttext />
<formularesponse samples="pi,r@$pi,.1:$pi,5.#1,10" answer="pi*r^2">
<responseparam name="tol" type="tolerance" default="0.01"
description="Numerical Tolerance" />
<hintgroup showoncorrect="no">
<startouttext />You need to include &pi; in your response.<br />
Try "pi".<endouttext />
</hintgroup>

</formularesponse>
</problem>

See the online contextual help for formularesponse in CSTR Edit mode
for the syntax of the argument 'samples'.
batchelo@sfu.ca
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LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Authoring Maps
Making sequences and pages
Subcategories:
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
How do I make a sequence?
Write sbdemo.sequence at the end of your URL.
For example:

change this:  http://s10.lite.msu.edu/priv/felicia/  (using your URL)
to:           http://s10.lite.msu.edu/priv/felicia/sbdemo.sequence (then click enter)

LON-CAPA is resource driven.  It will see that your new resource is a
.sequence file and it will bring up the RAT (Resource Assembly Tool).
Click on the RAT button.  To make a linear sequence, click start, click "link resource" in the little window, then click finish.  Click the link that says straighten.  Then click the black arror and click "add resource into link" in the little window.  Click the new "res" box that appears and click "browse" or "search" in the little window.  Find the resource you want and then click "Save changes" and then click the pink "save map".  You can do the steps above for each resource that you want, including other sequences.  After that,
click the green "List Directory" button.  In your construction space,
click sbdemo.sequence.  Then click publish this resource at the top.
Fill in the metadata, then click "Finalize Publication".  Now, you can
use this sequence as your top level sequence when making yourself a
course coordinator.

(Please notify felicia@lon-capa.org if this becomes outdated, there are changes in plan for the construction space).
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
What's a map? sequence? page?
sequences and pages are types of maps. Sequences put each resource together in individual pages such that students need to use the arrow button on their remote to move ahead. Pages put the resources in one browser screen. Pages are created in an identical matter as sequences except that you name them *.page.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
How do I define specific versions of resources in my map?
> I had a question today about versions in LON-CAPA.  How can you get a
> course to not automatically use the the most recent version and stick
> with the one you originally had when started the course?  This seems to
> be the current default action.

There is a bug in here but before we get in to that:

enter the specific version into the Map, (If you want version 9 of
/res/msu/guy/a.problem put /re/msu/guy/a.9.problem into the map)

> Related to that above, say you use the same sequence for more than one
> course, say Fall then Spring.  You want to use the most recent version
> when using your spring course, but you want the ability to look back at
> the Fall class and see the sequence as it was during the time of the
> course.  Is this possible, and if so, how do you set this?

Once again the above would do that.

The bug is that there is no way yet of locking yourself to the most

This is planned for but we have got there quite yet.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
How does group search and group import work?
If you build a new sequence, you can click "Group Import" and check all
the recources that you want imported at one time.  You are also allowed
to change the order of them before you complete the import.  By default,
the resources will be imported in the order that you checked them.
* Group search and Group import are accessed from the RAT
page (construction space-->a .sequence file-->advanced map editing)
* Group import: browse network directory
and add many resources to a .page or .sequence
* Group search: search metadata and add many resources to a .page
or .sequence

(Group import might only work with for Course Coordinators)
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
What is simple and advanced edit?
There are two map editors built into the system: the "simple" editor, and the "advanced graphical editor".
Which editor you can use depends on the complexity of your map. The simple editor can only handle maps that have neither branchings, conditions, nor special resource types (meaning, "random pick,", "mandatory,", etc).
Basically, a simple map is a map with one straight path from Start to Finish, which will look the same for all students.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
Can I "downgrade" a graphical map to a "simple" one?
Yes, but only if indeed it is a simple map, one path for all students from Start to Finish. When saving your map from the graphical RAT, choose the option that does not save the graphical layout (the yellow option next to the green "save")
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
What is Group Copy?
Group Copy is a way to copy parts from another map. You can browse for .sequence and .page files, and load them. They will be shown in linear order, as accurately as possible. You can then check the resources you want. In the next step, you can change their order, just like in Group Import and Group Search.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
How can I import resources into a sequence such that each student sees a selection of n of m specified resources?
I see some reference to randompick and randomout in bugzilla, but no documentation?
batchelo@sfu.ca
The following seems to work in v0.6.2
1) put all the resources into a sequence, save and publish it.
2) import that sequence (child) into a parent sequence
3) when saving the import, click on "set parameters" and enter a parameter called "randompick"
4) set the value of randompick to be the number of resources you wish to have randomly selected from the child sequence.
5) save and publish the parent sequence.
The unused resources will be marked "hidden" for individual students.
Note that there may be ugly and unresolved ramifications regarding CHRT, STAT and SPRS and NAV with respect to how this all works.....
There is definitely a problem with PRT for this kind of "randompick" sequence.
batchelo@sfu.ca
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Authoring Maps :
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LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Publishing
Publishing stuff
Subcategories:
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Publishing :
How do I make something "public"?
When you make a resource "public", people do not need to login to see it. It still has a URL like any other resource.

After hitting "Publish", pull down the menu next to "Copyright" to "Public".

If all resources in one directory and below should become "Public", it might be a good idea to make an entry in the default.meta file.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Publishing :
How do I make sequences and page-maps "public"?
You don't - it does not work.

Since sequences can be adaptive, they only work within the context of a session. Also, initial digestion of maps is time intensive and only happens when first entering a course.

But I really want my resources public AND viewed in sequential order?!

There is the <standalone > tag right now which allows you to embed connections between pages that don't show when a resource is used in a class. <standalone >

  <a href="page2.html" >Back</a >
<a href="page4.html" >Next</a >
<br />
</standalone >
The back and Next links only appear when a document is viewed not in a class.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Publishing :
How does the <standalone > tag work?
Anything wrapped between the <standalone > will only display when your resource if viewed outside of a course. For example, you might want to display information on your resources for people searching the LON-CAPA resources to see or when viewing the resources as public. This extra information will not be displayed to users (students, TAs, instructors) who look at your resource from inside their course.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Publishing :
I have resources with a "campus license" ...
You can enforce a "campus license" by publishing material with the "copyright" "Domain Only"
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring : Publishing :
I do not want anybody to see my stuff yet, but want to try it out
You can publish with copyright "Private".
Make sure to remember to republish with another copyright if you want others to see your material.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Is there any place I can learn the LON-CAPA vocabulary?
LON-CAPA has a vocabularly all of its own, with words such as "radio-button response problem", "foil", "concept-group", etc.

Ask your LON-CAPA domain coordinator or system admin (the person who added you to the LON-CAPA system) to add you as a student to the demo course. Tell your domain coordinator that the demo course is located at /res/msu/demo/demo.sequence.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Information co-authors
A co-author is someone who has permission to create resources in a users construction space.

At MSU, we sometime create one author, e.g. physics123, and make everyone who will be creating resources for physics123 be co-authors. This method works well for collaborators to work with each other.

To create a co-author, you must log into LON-CAPA as the author, pick the role of author, click CUSR on the remote control, type in the username for the person you want to be a co-author, fill in the data (if the person is not in the system yet), and select the role co_author for the user, and finally submit the data. The other person will have the role of co-author when they log in and can do everything that the author can do in the construction space.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
I just want a list of all the tags and functions supported by LON-CAPA
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
What's better, HTML formatting or TeX formatting?
> If someone uses H<sub >2</sub >O, what will print in the pdf?

The "correct" thing.

We will auto convert HTML -> TeX Whenever possible.

When preparing a page for printing we already know that <sub > should become:
\ensuremath{_{

and </sub > should be:
}}

> Isn't it
> more advisable that people create their webpages using <m >/ensuremath

Nope.  In fact it is unadvisable, since it is much easier to go from
HTML -> TeX, then from TeX -> HTML/XML

Especially if the lonxml parser throws no warnings about the page.

We want them to be able to use as much HTML as possible, and as little
TeX as neccesary. We only suggest using TeX and (<m ></m > ) if it is
difficult or nearly impossible to do in HTML. And
<tex ></tex ><web ></web > if it is impossible to do something in HTML.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
<m > tag?
Wrapping TeX with <m > </m > will put the TeX through the TTH (tex to html) converter. If you want variables inside of this tag to be evaluated before the tex gets converted, then use <m eval="on" >
<m eval="on">$eqn$</m >, will evaluate the variable $eqn first and then run it through the TTH converter. The following will get rid of +- and convert it to - inside of equations: <script > ...$eq = "$a +$b"; $eq = ~s/\+-/-/s; </script > In text area: <m eval="on" >$eq</m >
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
samba help, (I mapped my LON-CAPA server on my windows machine)?
/priv/calc is the root of your construction space, which starts at

/home/calc/public_html

- so your /priv/calc/intro translates into /home/calc/public_html/intro, etc.
I was able to mount apcalc user space on Unix and Windows 2000. Our dept
Sun machines have Samba Client installed. The following options were given to
the smbclient :

For Win2K, the path used for mapping was \\LONCAPA-SERVER\USERNAME.

server in order top add it on your drive.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
How do I get rid of unmatched tag warnings?
Make sure all your tags have a closing tag or have a slash at the end
(<br ></br > can be denoted <br />). Problems should have no warnings!
Plain HTML pages _may_ be able to handles some of the warnings, but problems
should be warning free.

An example:

<p > Paragraph text </p >
<hr > replaced with <hr />
<i ><b > text </b ></i > is correct (<i ><b > text </i ></b > is wrong)
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Can I incorporate Power Point slides into LON-CAPA?
Static PPT presentations ... not a problem. Current versions of powerpoint support the publication of power point slides and presentations as .html These can clearly be included as resources. For examples see:

http://www.nscl.msu.edu/~fox/session1/presentation_files/frame.htm
- A presentation from a short course in C programming.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
How do I create a new page?
After becoming an author and clicking CSTR:

change this:  http://s10.lite.msu.edu/priv/felicia/
to:           http://s10.lite.msu.edu/priv/felicia/DirectoryNamepageName.html
(then click enter)

Enter HTML in the text box.  Click save and publish when ready.

- OR -

Click Browse in the green frame.  Find the webpage that you created on your local
machine and then click upload.  You can edit the name to put it in the appropriate
directory if necessary.

LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
When I try to construct a new item, all I see is the login screen below the construction bar.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Can I have conditional rendering of HTML?
Yep, you can use the <block condition="(perl expression)"> ...
</block> construct.

Example: the following document testtable.html will render itself
differently (i.e., with a different "right side") based on the query
string parameters passed to it. The condition uses the &EXT function
to access query string parameters passed to the html-page.

<html>
<title>
Title of Document Goes Here
</title>
<body bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<table>
<tr><td width="50%" bgcolor="#BBBBBB"><h1>Left Side</h1><a href="testtable.html?show=a">Show A</a>
<a href="testtable.html?show=b&color=blue">Show B in blue</a>
bla bla
<a href="testtable.html?show=b&color=red">Show B in red</a>
bla bla bla bla
<a href="testtable.html?show=b">Show B</a>

</td>
<td bgcolor="#BBFFBB">
<h1>Right Side</h1>
<block condition="&EXT('query.show') eq 'a'">
<h2>I am A</h2>
Bla bla ...
</block>
<block condition="&EXT('query.show') eq 'b'">
<block condition="&EXT('query.color') eq 'blue'">
I will be blue!!!
</block>
<block condition="&EXT('query.color') eq 'red'">
I will be red!!!
</block>

<h2>I am B</h2>

Bla bla
</block>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Can I make a document link back to me, or elsewhere?
Yes, in LON-CAPA you can insert links into other people's documents.
Append a query string to your url and set link= to word>url, for example
 http://(server)/res/domain/author/foo.html?link=cool>http://www.lon-capa.org/
will turn the word "cool" into a hyperlink that points to www.lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Can I jump into the middle of a page?
Yes, you can turn any word on a page into an anchor by passing anchor= in the query string
For example,
 http://(server)/res/domain/author/foo.html?anchor=dog
will put an anchor into the page where the word "dog" appears and jump there when you call the page.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Can I highlight something in somebody else's page?
Yes, pass highlight= in the query string. For example
 http://(server)/res/domain/author/foo.html?highlight=camel
will show the page with every appearance of the word "camel" highlighted.
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
How can I change the looks of a page for my course?
In PARM - "Set Course Environment" you can specify a style file for your
course under "Default XML Style File".

For example, the following style file would replace the <h1>-tag in all
incorporated pages by the annoying <blink>-tag:

<definetag name = "h1">
<meta></meta>
<render>
<tex>\section{</tex>
<latexsource>\section{</latexsource>
</render>
</definetag>

<definetag name = "/h1">
<meta></meta>
<render>
<tex>}</tex>
<latexsource>}</latexsource>
</render>
</definetag>

For the print target, it would still use \section as <h1>-rendering.
The file extension of a style file is .sty
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Can I have multilingual resources?
Yes, use the languageblock tag

Example:

This is always shown.
<languageblock exclude="german,swiss,french">
Do you speak English?
</languageblock>
<languageblock include="german,swiss">
Sprechen Sie Deutsch?
</languageblock>
<languageblock include="french,swiss">
Parlez-vous francais?
</languageblock>
korte@lite.msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
How do I add an image
If you know where the image is, such as graphics/image.gif or /res/domain/author/../image.gif, then just add the following in the text box of a question or webpage:
<img src="graphics/image.gif" />
If the image isn't published, you will need to upload the image and publish it.
felicia@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
Can I (or how can I) include an .eps file image in a LONCAPA problem?
Add the gif/jpg/png to the problem with the <img > tag. LON-CAPA will convert the web graphic to an eps. For better quality, in the directory with filename.gif, publish filename.eps. The system will notice that an eps file is in the graphic's directory and grab that image to be used with printing.
felicia@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
What HTML greek chatacters can I use safely?
&alpha, &beta, &gamma, &delta, &epsilon, &zeta, &eta, &theta, &iota, &kappa, &lambda, &mu, &nu, &xi, &omicron, &pi, &rho, &sigma, &tau, &upsilon, &phi, &chi, &psi, &omega, &thetasym, &piv, &Alpha, &Beta, &Gamma, &Delta, &Epsilon, &Zeta, &Eta, &Theta, &Iota, &Kappa, &Lambda, &Mu, &Nu, &Xi, &Omicron, &Pi, &Rho, &Sigma, &Tau, &Upsilon, &Phi, &Psi, &Omega

guy@albertelli.com
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
How can I edit my resources using search and replace methods?
Do it off-line. i.e. Write your problem on your own computer using the editor of your choice. When you are happy with the global changes upload it to your construction space. If you need to make changes to an existing problem, you could "download" it to your own computer for this purpose. Personally I'd do it by viewing the problem in the xml editor in CSTR and then copy and paste the txt from that frame into the local editor. Currently files in an author's construction space, created through the web browser, are not owned by the author and there is not group write permission set. So they can only be edited by the author through the browser.
If there is a more satisfying answer to this question, I'd like to hear it.
batchelo@sfu.ca
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
New Item
LON-CAPA User Help : Authoring :
New Item
LON-CAPA User Help :
Installation and maintenance of a LON-CAPA server.
Subcategories:
CVS
LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
CVS
CVS
Subcategories:

CVS info

LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : CVS :
CVS info
(All examples below assume your cvs checkout is in /somewhere/loncapa)

Send an e-mail to helpdesk@lon-capa.org to request a username for the CVS repository, if you want to be able to checkout the LON-CAPA code, and do not already have a username assigned.

### Accessing the repository

Note: LON-CAPA CVS location changed October 22, 2008 to: source.lon-capa.org:/home/cvs
$export CVS_RSH=ssh$ export CVSROOT=:ext:USERNAME@source.lon-capa.org:/home/cvs

If you checked out your local copy of the repository from the old CVS server, (i.e., before October 22, 2008), you will need to change the contents of CVS/Root in each subdirectory. (You need only do this once, when you first switch from the old hostname to the new one). Change to the top level directory for the repository (i.e, the one which contains: loncom, rat, doc, capa, modules)
$cd /somewhere/loncapa  then use the following (all on one line) $ find . -name Root -exec perl -p -i -e "s/zaphod\.lite\.msu\.edu/source.lon-capa.org/" {} \;

to make the change recursively to use of the new location.

Prior to mid-May 2008, authentication with a cvs login to the LON-CAPA CVS repository on the old server was possible using the pserver command.
export CVSROOT=:pserver:USERNAME@zaphod.lite.msu.edu:/home/cvs


As of May 14, 2008, remote access to the CVS repository (i.e., from outside the MSU network) using pserver authentication was no longer available. Furthermore, pserver authentication is no longer available for access from anywhere following migration to the new server on October 28, 2008.

If you have a local copy of the cvs repository which you checked out prior to May 14, 2008 you will need to switch the method stored in CVS/Root in each directory in your local copy of the repository from :pserver to :ext (see below).

The "cvs login" command (which relies on pserver) is no longer supported for remote connections; instead ssh will be used to authenticate. Each time you use a CVS command, e.g., cvs update -d -A to update your repository, you will be prompted to enter your password (which will be communicated to the CVS server via ssh). As noted above, for a local repository created prior to May 2008, it is necessary to change the contents of CVS/Root in each subdirectory. (You need only do this once, when you first switch from using pserver to using ssh).
Change to the top level directory for the repository (i.e, the one which contains: loncom, rat, doc, capa, modules)
$cd /somewhere/loncapa  then use the following: $ find . -name Root -exec perl -p -i -e "s/pserver/ext/" {} \;

to make the change to use :ext recursively.

### Updating the repository

To update a repository to have the files marked STABLE do this:
$cd /somewhere/loncapa$ cvs update -d -r STABLE

It is expected that all production machines will be using this.

To change a repository to have the latest (and maybe greatest versions) do this:
$cd /somewhere/loncapa$ cvs update -d -A

It is expected that all developers to be using this.

If you have updated a repository to the Latest (and as it turns out not so great) version, doing:
$cd /somewhere/loncapa$ cvs update -d -r STABLE

Will take you back to the STABLE version.

export CVS_RSH=ssh
cd loncapa
cvs update -d -r STABLE
cd loncom/build
make build
su
make install
make configinstall
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart
/etc/rc.d/init.d/loncontrol restart


### Using a public key

The downside to using ssh for remote authentication in place of pserver is that you will be prompted to enter your password each time you issue a cvs command.

A solution to this is to use
$ssh-keygen -t dsa  to generate public and private keys in ~/.ssh/ Send the public key (id_dsa.pub) to helpdesk@lon-capa.org so it can be added to the appropriate authorized_keys file on source.lon-capa.org If you have any problems or questions please contact me. -- Stuart Raeburn helpdesk@lon-capa.org [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : How do I install LON-CAPA? Installation instructions are maintained at http://install.lon-capa.org/docs/install/index.html. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : What hardware does LON-CAPA require? Hardware Recommendation ----------------------- For full-time, classroom usage, an adequate LON-CAPA server should be/have: * a multiprocessor machine, * a CPU speed of 1 gigahertz, * a gigabyte of memory, * and at least 40 to 80 gigabytes of hard disk space. A lesser machine can be used for toying around with LON-CAPA (LON-CAPA will run for a single user on most any machine). LON-CAPA servers experience significant peaks of activity before a homework submission deadline. To support these critical peaks of activity, it is strongly advised that LON-CAPA machines fit the above recommendation. If thousands of students start accessing the box as a web server... well you may want to consider more options. The design of the LON-CAPA system is to naturally and transparently load-balance on multiple computer clusters. So, a simple solution for running an entire college campus is to just have an adequate plurality of LON-CAPA servers rather than a single, particularly monstrous server. We like to think of high web server usage as "a good problem" though.. :) More Information on Hardware and System Administration ------------------------------------------------------ I find that LON-CAPA works nicely (for development purposes) on a Pentium II, 20 gigabytes of hard-disk space, 256M RAM, and 400MHz. The consensus is though, that this may only be adequate for a class of a dozen students. If you are making a serious investment, we suggest you join our mailing list by visiting http://mail.lon-capa.org/mailman/listinfo/lon-capa-admin By posting to this mailing list, you can learn about what solutions have worked for others. We support Linux OS. LON-CAPA has been shown to work on Debian, Mandrake, and RedHat. Instructions are based on RedHat-centric installs. Given the current level of new LON-CAPA feature requests and frequency of new software versions, we suggest that you stick with RedHat to reduce high-frequency system administration overhead. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : What should I never do? NEVER EVER EVER install the LON-CAPA-setup rpm on a running system. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : What are the links to check out how my system is running? http://MACHINENAME/lon-status/index.html http://MACHINENAME/lon-status/filestatus.html (CVS-> make statuspost) http://MACHINENAME/lon-status/rpmstatus.html (CVS-> make rpmstatuspost) [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : Can reducing the number of servers in hosts.tab increase efficiency of my server? No. The network connections (lonc/lond) created by hosts.tab place a very low load on the server which does not greatly interfere with memory usage and the CPU rate. The only potential efficiency problem that might result is the introduction of poorly configured/updated LON-CAPA machines in the network (bad lonc/lond software)--causing servers to have their Apache web server children wait on various network request (the Apache child will go on with life, but it is inefficient while it is waiting to timeout the lonc/lond connection). There is great importance attached to this issue right now. The research and development arm of LON-CAPA is currently implementing these further solutions: * lonc/lond connections are dynamically brought up and down based off of the timeout field and the maximum number of connections fields in hosts.tab * the upgrade process will test the lonc/lond layer * hosts.tab will be automatically updated and with this automatic update, there will be testing of the lonc/lond connections [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : How do I SAFELY upgrade from RedHat 6.2 to RedHat 7.2? You should only upgrade from RedHat 6.2 to RedHat 7.2 if you are an experienced Linux System Administrator. 1. Backing up 2. Upgrade to RedHat 7.2 3. Secure your machine 4. Download stable LON-CAPA release 5. Check the status of your RPMs 6. Additional RPMs to download 7. Recheck the status of your RPMs 8. Updating your kernel 9. Install LON-CAPA 10. Set up MySQL and systemperl. ################## # 1. Backing up. # ################## There are two things that you must, by all costs, save. **** All the files in the /home directory. (NOTE: You will not be able to save the /home/httpd/sockets directory) **** Your machine's configuration. I recommend you print out: /etc/hostname /etc/hosts /etc/resolv.conf /etc/httpd/conf/access.conf /etc/httpd/conf/loncapa.conf and any other files described at http://install.lon-capa.org/reconfig/. ############################ # 2. Upgrade to RedHat 7.2 # ############################ Here are two helpful links: http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-7.2-Manual/install-guide/ http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-7.2-Manual/pdf/rhl-ig-x86-en-72.pdf ########################## # 3. Secure your machine # ########################## Do the following: echo "ALL: PARANOID" > /etc/hosts.deny Make any other modifications to your /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. The next goal is to update all of your RPMs as quickly as possible (to avoid a network break-in. Ideally, you would not be connected to the network and would have downloaded/burned onto CD-R's the contents of: ftp://mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/linux/updates/7.2/en/os/i386 ftp://mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/linux/updates/7.2/en/os/i486 ftp://mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/linux/updates/7.2/en/os/i586 ftp://mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/linux/updates/7.2/en/os/i686 ftp://mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/linux/updates/7.2/en/os/noarch Otherwise, you need to first ethernet configure your computer. ####################################### # 4. Download stable LON-CAPA release # ####################################### This is still done with CVS. Please consult: http://install.lon-capa.org/docs_old/cvsupgrade/ #################################### # 5. Check the status of your RPMs # #################################### cd loncapa/loncom/build perl check-rpms -ftp mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/linux/updates/7.2/en/os/ -d /home/user/install --no-kernel --download cd /home/user/install rpm -Uvh *.rpm should be a fairly straight shot (you may need a few more additional RPMs from ftp://mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/redhat-7.2-en/os/i386/RedHat/RPMS/.) ################################## # 6. Additional RPMs to download # ################################## Compare the RPMs on your system (rpm -qa) with loncapa/doc/otherfiles/rpm_list.txt ###################################### # 7. Recheck the status of your RPMs # ###################################### Recheck the status of your RPMs one more time. perl check-rpms -ftp mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/linux/updates/7.2/en/os/ -d /home/user/install --no-kernel --download ########################### # 8. Updating your kernel # ########################### Follow the instructions at: http://www.redhat.com/support/resources/howto/kernel-upgrade/ Note: If you fail with the kernel update, you will have to: * insert a RedHat 7.2 Disc #1 * Type "linux rescue" at the boot prompt * and try to make fixes onto the filesystem ####################### # 9. Install LON-CAPA # ###################### Please see http://install.lon-capa.org/; especially http://install.lon-capa.org/docs_old/cvsupgrade/ The goal is to run: make install ################################### # 10. Set up MySQL and systemperl # ################################### See loncapa/doc/how_to_install_on_RedHat7.2.txt  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : RedHat 7.2 install is missing files lib_perl.so, libncurses.so, etc. To find out what RPMs correspond with the missing files libncurses, libreadline, libperl.so, you can often do a google search, for instance "rpm libncurses.so" will tell you to try the ncurses4 or ncurses RPM. libreadline is either the readline or readline2 rpm. libperl.so is part of the mod_perl rpm. All these rpms are available at: ftp://mirror.pa.msu.edu/linux/redhat/redhat-7.2-en/os/i386/RedHat/RPMS/ [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration : How do I configure the MySQL server? lonSqlAccess inside loncapa_apache.conf should always be set to value 'localhostkey' This is the password for www@localhost on the MySQL database as described in the instructions below. RedHat 7.* requires these RPMs: * mysql-3.23.41-1 (or standard RedHat 7.* version) * mysql-server-3.23.41 (or standard RedHat 7.* version) RedHat 6.* requires the RPM: * LON-CAPA-mysql available at http://install.lon-capa.org/3.1/latestRPMS/. DUE TO COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS, PLEASE DO NOT USE RPMs FROM OTHER SOURCES SUCH AS www.mysql.com. Enter the mysql shell--- (use one of the following two commands) bash$ mysql -u root mysql
bash$mysql -u root -p mysql Run these commands--- mysql> CREATE DATABASE loncapa; mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host, User, Password) mysql> VALUES ('localhost','www',password('localhostkey')); mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO www@localhost; mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES; mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR root@localhost=PASSWORD('new_password'); If you need to change the www@localhost password, then bash$ mysql -u root -p mysql
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR www@localhost=PASSWORD('localhostkey');
LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
When I restart the web server, there are errors about missing perl files? What can be done?
This is most likely due to missing
files that are supposed to be inside
the /usr/lib/perl5 directory tree.
directory tree (and make sure it is
up to date with everything LON-CAPA
needs) by

1) Going to http://install.lon-capa.org/3.1/latestRPMS/
LON-CAPA-systemperl-*.*-1.i386.rpm if you are on RedHat 6.*
or
LON-CAPA-systemperl-*.*-rh72.i386.rpm if you are on RedHat 7.*
3) Install the files with the 'rpm' command:
rpm -Uvh --nodeps --force LON-CAPA-systemperl-*.i386.rpm

*** Debian users only, see below ***
You should consult CVS:doc/otherfiles/perl_modules.txt
and manually install needed perl modules from
http://www.cpan.org/.
LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
What is a LON-CAPA domain?
A LON-CAPA domain is a collection of load-balancing institutional machines forming a cluster of LON-CAPA servers. It has nothing to do with the many other meanings for the word "domain", such as "domain names" like "loncapa.org", or Windows file server domains.
If you are installing a LON-CAPA server for testing purposes, it is safe to create your own domain name for testing. You should ask the person running a real domain before adding your computer to their domain.
LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
What are all of the LON-CAPA configuration values? Expiration Cache Time? Server Load? Machine ID? LON-CAPA Domain?
LON Host ID ("Machine Name")
is an internal ID within the LON-CAPA network used to specify
the uniqueness of a particular LON-CAPA server.

specifies the e-mail address of an institutional member
responsible for direct upkeep of this server.

LON Domain ("Domain Name")
is a unique internal identifier within the LON-CAPA network
specific to the home institution;
A LON-CAPA domain is a collection of load-balancing institutional
machines forming a cluster of LON-CAPA servers. It has nothing to
do with the many other meanings for the word "domain", such as
"domain names" like "loncapa.org", or Windows file server domains.
If you are installing a LON-CAPA server for testing purposes,
it is safe to create your own domain name for testing. You should
to their domain.

specifies a threshold of activity within The LearningOnline
Network that this machine should provide.  We strongly recommend
a value of 2.00.  Depending on processor architecture (dual processor),
this value may be increased, but there is no readily available
measure in this regard.

Cache Expiration Time
indicates, in seconds, how long distributed resources should be
held in the server's cache when not being accessed by students,
instructors, or any other class of user.
LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
What ports does a LON-CAPA system need open?
LON-CAPA requires that ports 5663, 8080 and 80 be open in order for loncapa to work.
5663 is used to implement a TCP/IP courseware management trafficking layer on the distributed network system (educational resource data is passed, user information is handled, etc).
8080, necessary for logging in, is used to deliver auxiliary web content (e.g. icons).
80 is used for standard http data.
While you can probably alter 80 to another port, 8080 and 5663 are currently hard-coded. Whereas 5663 is the uniform standard across all other LON-CAPA servers, it is unchangeable.
You probably want port 22 (ssh) open. You may also wish to open other ports for nfs/samba etc.
Leaving port 25 open, would also be a good idea as we plan for Lon-CAPA to receive email in the future.
LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
RedHat 8.0 Tips
I (sharrison@users.sourceforge.net) do not currently plan a specific set of instructions and customized installation for RedHat 8.0. I am, however, working on RedHat 8.0 in order to prepare for the future (e.g. RedHat 8.1, 8.2, or 8.3).

LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
New Item
LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
How can I tell if load-balancing is working between the servers listed in /home/httpd/lonTabs/spare.tab?
Overload the machine and then try logging in. You should end up on a different machine.
This might be done (on a server which is not currently in production demand) by changing the server load parameter which, when exceeded, will trigger the attempt to use an alternate server.
To change the server load which will trigger load balancing to another server adjust the following parameter
 /etc/httpd/conf/loncapa.conf
2 is default, could be higher on a busy library server.
Set it low to test out load balancing.
(After changing tha loncapa.conf lonLoadLim parameter, you will need to restart httpd)
batchelo@sfu.ca
Subcategories:

[New Answer in " How can I tell if load-balancing is working between the servers listed in /home/httpd/lonTabs/spare.tab?"]
LON-CAPA User Help : Server System Administration :
How Transparent is Load-balancing to the users?
Nearly transparent. If they log-in to one server and it decides it is overloaded, it will ask the other servers for their load measures. If an alternate server isn't overloaded, the only change the student should notice is that the URL is now changed.
Otherwise everything should look and act the same.
Load balancing is done when logging in and at no other time.
Once logged in the user does not shift between machines.

batchelo@sfu.ca
LON-CAPA User Help :
How to run a LON-CAPA domain, LON-CAPA coordination and user support.
Subcategories:
Answers that require you to become root
LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration :
Answers that require you to become root
Answers that require you to become root.
Subcategories:
LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration : Answers that require you to become root :
How do I change a filesystem authenticated author to Kerberos/Internally authenticated author?
Using CUSR, just change the users authentication.  If you desire, you can remove
the user from you machine using vipw or userdel.  If you remove the user from the
filesystem, go the user's home directory and chown -R www:www the user's directory.
LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration : Answers that require you to become root :
Can I delete resources from the private/resource space?
When materials are published and copied from private space to public space (/home/AUTHOR/public_html to /home/httpd/html/res/DOMAIN/AUTHOR), they are also listed in a database. Removing materials from /home/httpd/html/res/DOMAIN/AUTHOR will not unpublish. You will be able to find the deleted material still. The /home/httpd/html/res/DOMAIN/AUTHOR directories are not meant to be touched.

If an author wants to "unpublish" something for a good reason (e.g. wrote some textbook problems by without getting copyright permission), I recommend that they copy over the resource with something like a blank problem template or blank html page and remove clear all the data from the meta file when the publish this new blank problem. This way, the problem/resource is not searchable and if someone does come across it, the material is useless.

LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration : Answers that require you to become root :
How do I make a domain coordinator on a new LON-CAPA machine?
You need to determine the values of two variables,
DOMAINNAME and DOMAINCOORDINATORNAME.

DOMAINNAME should equal lonDefDomain in access.conf.
DOMAINCOORDINATORNAME can be whatever you want
(alphanumeric characters).

As root:
bash$cd loncom/build bash$ perl make_domain_coordinator.pl DOMAINCOORDINATORNAME DOMAINNAME
THEN enter password in standard input

bash$/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart (Note: the web server must be restarted with the above "httpd restart" command because make_domain_coordinator.pl alters /etc/group).  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration : How do I create a demo course? 1.) Log in as the domain coordinator 2.) Click CCRS on the remote to create a course 3.) Give your course a title, and keep the course empty or use /res/msu/demo/demo.sequence as the top-level map 4.) Make yourself or another user the course coordinator (you have the option as domain coordinator to automatically make yourself course coordinator to the course). Log out and log back in and you can play around with the course. Use DOCS to build your course. Click PARM on the Remote Control or Inline Menu and set parameters (due dates, etc.). Use ENRL and enroll yourself as a student. If you want to create material in the LON-CAPA resource pool in addition to any templated material you may have built in DOCS, theb look in the Authoring part of this faq for more help. Feel free to add your own question/answers to this faq after you are done exploring your demo course! It will really help us out if you happen to have time to do that.  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration : Can I set someone up internally authenticated and then switch them to Kerberos? Yep, no part of the system cares how they were authenticated. These changes can be done by click CUSR and then entering the appropriate username. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration : How do I check if my Kerberos authenticated author is working? Kerberos authentication works similar to internal authentication. You can set up the user with an internal password that you know and log in as the new user to verify your setup. When you validate that your setup is correct, you can change the user's authentication to kerberos. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration : How do I create a new author?  Open up a web browser and go to your lon-capa login page. Login as a Domian Coordinator, select CUSR on the remote control (type in username, click the User Roles button, fill in data, select role of author, and click click the Modify User button. NOTE: You may want to make yourself co-author to most authors (with their permission). This way, if the user needs help, you can quickly go to their construction space and see what the difficulty is without having to log into their account. To make yourself co-author, log in as the new author, click CUSR on remote, type in your username, and then select the check box where it says "co_author". Click "Modify User" at the bottom of the page. Another thing we do at MSU is make one author user, for example "bio", and let all the people who are working jointly on creating content be co-authors to the one space.  [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : LON-CAPA Coordinator: LON-CAPA Domain Administration : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Using LON-CAPA FAQ Using LON-CAPA FAQ. Subcategories: [New Answer in "Using LON-CAPA FAQ"] LON-CAPA User Help : Using LON-CAPA FAQ : Getting started with the LON-CAPA FAQ Click on the different subcategories to find the information you need. You can also use the [Search] link near the bottom and search for a specific item. If the information that you need is not in here, you can add it. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Using LON-CAPA FAQ : How do I add a new item? 1) Go to the category you want to contribute and answer to. 2) Click on the link near the bottom of the page: [New Answer in "XXXX"] where XXXX is the category you wish to add to. 3) If you do not have a login follow the link, [Create a New Login] to set up an account. If you still have trouble posting send an email to Felicia and she will add you to the FAQ administrator group. 4) Enter your email and password to identify yourself. 5) Give it a short title (or question) hit "Submit Changes" then type your answer into the text box. Hit "Submit Changes" again when you are finished. Hit "Revert" to cancel. ***NOTE*** As soon as you click the [New Answer in "LON-CAPA User Help"] link, a new answer will be created, even if you don't hit the "Submit Changes" button. It might not appear right away, but if you leave the category and return, it will come back. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Using LON-CAPA FAQ : Why did I get a "New Item" answer or category? As soon as you click the [New Answer in "LON-CAPA User Help"] link, a new answer will be created, even if you don't hit the "submit changes" button. It might not appear right away, but if you leave the category and return, it will come back. This will also happen for new sub-categories as well as answers. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Using LON-CAPA FAQ : How do I create a new category? 1.) Click the [Appearance] link and change your settings for "expert editing commands" from Hide to Show or Compact. 2.) Go to the category in which you want to make a subcategory 3.) Click the link near the top that says [New Subcategory of "PARENT CATEGORY NAME..."] where "PARENT CATEGORY NAME" is the category you are currently in. 4.) Type your new category name and click "Submit Changes" [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Using LON-CAPA FAQ : What if I have a question, but the answer is not in here? Put your question in the "Pending Questions" section of the FAQ. If you need your question answered immediately, send an email to felicia@lon-capa.org after you added your question to the "Pending Questions" section and request that your question be answered as soon as possible. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Using LON-CAPA FAQ : What if the question I want answered is in the FAQ, but the answer makes no sense? Send an email to felicia@lon-capa.org with the URL of the non-sensical answer. It will be edited to read clearer. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions Put questions that you believe belong in the LON-CAPA FAQ here only if you are unable to answer your own question. Someone will answer them and categorize them later. If your answer is delayed for more than a few days, please send an email to felicia@lon-capa.org and request that you pending question be answered. Subcategories: [New Answer in "Pending Questions"] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions : Firewall - other than possibly interfering with needed internet ports, will iptables significantly slow up LON-CAPA network connectivity? aaaaaa [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions : New Item I was wondering if there is any way to access the script variables from other problems. For example, I would like to find the value of the variable x in Problem A so that I can use it for calculations in Problem B ckelso@mines.edu I was wondering if you could give an example of the syntax necessary to use the "conditions" in the advanced editor mode when making a sequence. I could not find it in the authoring manual. Thanks. ckelso@mines.edu [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Pending Questions : New Item [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Error Messages Explained Explanation of various LON-CAPA error messages Subcategories: [New Answer in "Error Messages Explained"] LON-CAPA User Help : Error Messages Explained : Why do I see "login token"? "login token" pops up if the connection is down beween machines. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Error Messages Explained : What does "Could not handle ambiguous resource reference" mean? This error message has come up when a user tried to look at a sequence in publication space with it not being in a class. This can cause errors like this. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Error Messages Explained : I am using Mozilla and am having trouble logging in, even though I know my password is right. Mozilla has several features that can enhance the user experience by blocking pop-up windows and other such things. Unfortunately, LON-CAPA needs these capabilities to function correctly. To handle this problem, go to your Advanced preferences, and re-enable all the options under "Scripts & Windows", except "Open a link in a new window" is unnecessary. (Others may not be necessary either, but I'm playing it safe.) Unfortunately, these values don't seem able to be set on a per-site basis at this time (1.0), so you'll have to toggle them on and off as you want them. Alternatively, you can set up a separate Mozilla profile for using LON-CAPA. [Append to This Answer] LON-CAPA User Help : Software Developer Tips Methods and suggestions regarding the debugging and development of the software. Subcategories: Answers in this category: Debugging Apache children Profiling Apache Processes Interactive Memory Exploration [New Answer in "Software Developer Tips"] LON-CAPA User Help : Software Developer Tips : Debugging Apache children To start up Apache as a single child: /etc/init.d/httpd stop /usr/sbin/httpd -X This makes some debugging easier since you don't have to worry if you are always getting the same child. You can use the perl debugger against a server running this way. You need to add the below to a .conf file that Apache reads _BEFORE_ any other mod_perl directives (which in the new setup means in httpd.conf right before the Include conf/loncapa_apache.conf) PerlModule Apache::DB <<Perl>> Apache::DB->init; <</Perl>> <Location /> PerlFixupHandler Apache::DB <</Location>> You might want to surround this with a <IfDefine PERLDEBUG> <</IfDefine>> and then use /usr/sbin/httpd -X -DPERLDEBUG In order to get the more-useful graphical debugger working with Apache, you'll need to do the following: • Download and install the perl modules Apache::DB (necessary for first part of this answer), Tk, and Devel::ptkdb. perl -MCPAN -e shell cpan shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.62) cpan> install Apache::DB ... cpan> install Tk ... cpan> install Devel::ptkdb ^D  Tk will take a little while to install, and requires Tk development libraries on your system. • You must now modify two files: 1. In /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.1/i386-linux/Apache/DB.pm, change the line that says require "Apache/perl5db.pl" to require "Devel/ptkdb.pm". (You may need to tweak the path depending on the version of Perl that Apache is using.) 2. In /usr/lib/perl5/5.6.1/Devel/ptkdb.pm, change the line that says return if ($0 ne $filename ); (line 4002 in my version) to return unless ($filename =~ /lon/);.

• You do not need to change the Apache configuration created for Apache::DB, but let me re-emphasize the usefulness of wrapping it in an IfDefine so you can invoke this selectively. Be sure the debugger is invoked as the first Perl module, as it only affects modules compiled after the debugger is declared for use.

• Finally, before using this, the webserver must be able to open windows on your xdisplay. The easy way to do that is xhost + localhost every time restart your XServer, but you should be aware of the security implications of that.

Once you do all this, you should get a graphical debugger to use whenever you load a page with a LON-CAPA handler, instead of the text-mode Perl debugger interface. Unfortunately, there are still some quirks in using ptkdb this way:

• All modules have a "true" value at the end of them to confirm that they loaded correctly. You may need to "step into" this in order to get to the actual handler. I've not been able to predict exactly where the debugger will start debugging at (i.e., the compilation phase, the handler calling phase, etc.) Another thing that often works is to hit "return" as soon as the debugger comes up if the "use" lines are highlighted, which skips the step where Perl loads all the modules.
• For reasons unknown, whatever the context it starts in (often the handler function), it is unable to recognize breakpoints within that context. So if it starts in the handler function itself, you can set breakpoints in functions the handler calls, but not in the handler itself. For debugging purposes, it can be useful to write a handler like this: sub handler { real_handler(shift); }, and rename the handler itself to "real_handler". Again, stupid... but what are you going to do?
• Each time you use ptkdb, it doesn't seem to unregister correctly, so you usually have to kill and restart the server to do another debugging session. Sometimes you have to give an external kill command, ^C doesn't cut it. I usually bindle the relevant cp command and apache invocation ("/usr/sbin/httpd") onto one command line and use the shell to invoke that all at once.
• Don't miss the data viewer on the right-hand pane, it's very useful, esp. for looking into hashes. You can also evaluate code in that window that actually changes the values of variables while debugging, which can be very useful for simulating things that might be hard to set up as input directly. In fact, be aware that everything you put on the side is invoked on every line you stop on, which is every single line if you're stepping through a function. Some things may cause problems if you do that.

(Neat trick while debugging a web handler is to put \$r->rflush() in the expression list, so it dumps the results immediately to the browser. However, Mozilla seems to be offended by that sometimes, and parses the HTML strangely, even though "View Source" shows it was all correct.)

Despite the quirks, I still find it very, very useful.

An alternative I've found for "xhost + localhost" is "xhost + local:" (include the colon), which allows all local network connections only. The practical differences are minimal, but it seems there may be some circumstances where this matters; I haven't been able to fully nail this down yet.
LON-CAPA User Help : Software Developer Tips :
Profiling Apache Processes

If you want to profile Apache children with LON-CAPA:

1. Ensure that Apache::DProf is installed on your system. If necessary, as root:
# perl -MCPAN -e shell

cpan shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.62)

cpan> install Apache::DProf
PerlModule Apache::DProf
into loncapa_apache.conf in /etc/httpd/conf/, after the LoadModule for mod_perl.
3. Create the directory /var/log/httpd/dprof and make www the owner.

You may wish to consult the previous answer and wrap this in some other IfDefine, such as PERLPROF.

Then, in /var/log/httpd/dprof, you will get a directory for each PID the server was running under. You'll probably want to use the -X option on apache, so you only get one child, and consequently one directory. Use the program dprofpp in the directory that has the profiler information to read the results of the profiler.

bowersj2@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help : Software Developer Tips :
Interactive Memory Exploration
You will need the B-Size and Devel-Symdump CPAN modules

PerlModule B::TerseSize
PerlModule Apache::Status

<Location /perl-status>
SetHandler perl-script
PerlHandler Apache::Status
PerlSetVar StatusTerse On
PerlSetVar StatusTerseSize On
PerlSetVar StatusTerseSizeMainSummary On
PerlSetVar StatusDumper On
PerlSetVar StatusPeek On
Order Deny,Allow
Deny from All
Allow from localhost
</Location>

and localhost/perl-status will ave a nice browsable view of where
memory is currently being used.

You might want to use the -X option.


LON-CAPA User Help :
If the machine is set up correctly, yes you can.  Just make sure that you

will go through.

Author/Co-author - you must log into the machine that the construction space
is located on.
To generalize this:

Any machine in a cluster can run sessions for any user in the cluster,
regardless of domain.

All functions for all users work from any machine in the cluster, except the
roles of author and co-author.

In order for author or co-author to work, the user needs to log into the
machine that hosts the respective construction space. 
The email below is for a user whose authoring is done on an MSU server and
course is administered through a server in the Wyandotte domain:

- Everything except authoring/construction space stuff can be done on
any machine in the network. That includes
1) modifying classlists
2) modifying course parameters
3) doing homework
6) anything but construction space work.

> > However, can I work on S10 and access it on Wyandotte?

All problems published on s10 are available at all machines in the
network, including Wyandotte, so all work that is published, will be
available at Wyandotte.

> >  What about my class list-can I put that on S10 and access it on
> > Wyandotte?

All modifications to a course, and all modifications to classlists /
course parameters / etc . can be seen and done at any machine in the
network.

> >  Also, I cannot use the co-author role on the Wyandotte site, it
> > keeps going back to the role page.

All authoring must be done on the machine that has the construction
space. In this case it is s10, so when doing construction login to
s10, when doing other stuff login to either s10 or wyandotte or any
other machine in the network.

LON-CAPA stands for Learning Online NETWORK with CAPA.  The key word
here is "network".

Because lon-capa is a network, you can log onto any machine in the
lon-capa network by specifying the correct domain.  You need to specify
the domain so the machine you are logging into knows where to go and
logged into the LON-CAPA NETWORK and can do your work.

Some work can not be done anywhere in the LON-CAPA network, but must be
done on a particular machine.  This work is working in your construction
space and being domain coordinator.  Let's forget about domain
coordinator for now because you will not encounter this.

You need to be on a particular machine when you work on your
construction space because it is private.  This privacy comes from your
construction work being done in your own individual directory (space) on
a particular machine.  This space is not shared with other machines.
This is why you need to publish something for it to be used in a class.
By publishing things from your construction space, you make a copy of
the resource in your private directory to another space that is public
and part of the NETWORK.  You may have heard one of us mention the terms
"private space" and "public space" before.  Private space is your
contruction space and public space is a directory that can be accessed
by the entire lon-capa network.  Because construction space is not part
of the network, you need to go to the particular machine where your
construction/private space is to work on it.
LON-CAPA User Help :
What is LON-CAPA?
Today --> LON-CAPA is:
* a course management system
* an individualized homework and automatic grading system
* a course authoring system: allowing new and existing content
to be flexibly gathered and utilized
* a content delivery system (the only delivery system that is
part of the National Digital Library)

Future --> LON-CAPA is all of the above plus:
* an individualized exam system
* a royalty payment system
* a research testbed
* a peer-reviewed resource of educational content and problems

LON-CAPA offers organized content delivery by a set of
standardized servers on an open source platform and
cost-efficient software solution.
LON-CAPA User Help :

and subscribe to the LON-CAPA-announce list to be kept up-to-date with general announcements such as conferences. If you want to discuss LON-CAPA with other users, please subscribe to LON-CAPA-users. System developers may want to subscribe to LON-CAPA-dev and LON-CAPA-cvs.

Also there is LON-CAPA-admin which is meant for questions about setting up a running system.
LON-CAPA User Help :
What browsers is LON-CAPA compatible with?
LON-CAPA is compatible with most releases of Netscape, Internet Explorer, and Mozilla.

LON-CAPA is not compatible with Opera.

Issues of compatibility mainly have to do with the javascript processing capability of a browser.

LON-CAPA User Help :
Is there a Course Coordinator Manual?
Yes, an online version of the Course Coordinator Manual can be found at: https://loncapa.msu.edu/adm/help/course.manual.pdf
williams@lon-capa.org, raeburn@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help :
Is there an Author Manual?
Yes, an online version of the Author Manual can be found at: https://loncapa.msu.edu/adm/help/author.manual.pdf
LON-CAPA User Help :
To add a link to an internal FAQ in the LON-CAPA User Help, do the following:

Type <faqomatic: file#> where you would like to inset the link. You can find the
file number of any page by looking at the bottom of the page your'e interested
in. There will be a link that looks like this:
This document is: http://help.loncapa.org/cgi-bin/fom?file=299
The file page number is the number that is listed after file= in the link. Replace
the text file# with the page number from the link.
Example: <faqomatic[] :299>

NOTE: Remove any spaces from the internal link. I had to add the space to keep the
example from translating into a link.
williams@lon-capa.org
LON-CAPA User Help :
How to report a bug or request an enhancement.
LON-CAPA uses "Bugzilla" (http://www.bugzilla.org/) to report and track bugs
and enhancements.  To use Bugzilla, you will need to have an account with
LON-CAPA's Bugzilla. You can create an account at http://bugs.lon-capa.org and
then select Open a New Account. To report a bug or request an enhancement, do
the following:

1. Open the web page http://bugs.lon-capa.org
2. Select enter a new bug report.
3. Select the product (LON-CAPA) on which to enter a bug.
6. Select the version of LON-CAPA, the LON-CAPA component the bug is in, the platform
7. Enter a summary in the summary text box.
8. Enter a description in the description text box.
9. Click Commit.

LON-CAPA is open-source software where everyone is free to contribute to the
development. If you think of an enhancement request, or find a bug in the system,
please report it. All reported bugs and enhancement requests posted on Bugzilla
will be examined by the core LON-CAPA team. Having the request in Bugzilla
makes it much easier to keep track of bugs and enhancement requests, making it
less likely such things will get lost or be forgetten as requests not in
Bugzilla frequently are.

Bugzilla also supports conversation about requests, and some workflow and
accountability features. You'll be able to see how the developers respond to
the bug, who is currently responsible for it, and what the developer's intention
is.
williams@lon-capa.org, bowersj2@msu.edu
LON-CAPA User Help :
Enabling your browser for remote control functionality .
The LON-CAPA remote control requires that you allow pop-up windows, cookies, and
JavaScript (activescript for some IE browsers). Most browsers have preferences
or options that you can access from the top of the window to make these changes.

For IE 6.0 on Windows ME, follow the instructions below:
1.      Click Tool and select Internet Options.
2.      Click the Privacy tag and change your settings to Medium-High or lower.
3.      Click the Security tag and change your settings to Medium or lower.
4.      Close your browser and re-open it.

For Netscape 6.0 or Mozilla, you would follow the steps below:
1.      Click Edit then preferences.
2.      Click the + near Advanced.
3.      Click Scripts and Plugins.
4.      Check Enable JavaScript for Navigator near the top.

If you still have problems logging into LON-CAPA or have trouble editing your
browser's options, please try a computer in one of MSU's computer labs or contact
your TA or instructor. 
williams@lon-capa.org
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